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Full text of "Cornell University Graduate School of Medical Sciences Announcement"

1 


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Cornell University 
Announcements 

Graduate School of 
Medical Sciences 
1986 • 1987 



Academic Calendar 1986-87 



1986 



Labor Day Holiday 

Registration for Quarter I * and Fall 

semester"; orientation for new 

students 

Quarter I and Fall semester begin 
Quarter I ends 
Examinations for Quarter I 

Registration for Quarter II* 

Quarter II begins 
Thanksgiving recess 

Winter recess: Instruction suspended 
5:00 p.m. 



Monday, September 1 



Tuesday and Wednesday, 

September 2 and 3 
Thursday, September 4 
Tuesday, November 4 
Wednesday, November 5- 

Friday, November 7 
Friday, November 7 and 
Monday, November 10 
Monday, November 10 
Thursday and Friday, 
November 27 and 28 

Friday, December 19 



1987 

Winter recess: Instruction resumed 
9:00 a.m. 

Last day for completing requirements for 

January degrees 
Conferral of January degrees 
Quarter II and Fall semester end 
Examinations for Quarter II 

Registration for Quarter III* and Spring 
semester* * ' 

Quarter III and Spring semester begin 
Washington's Birthday observed 
Quarter III ends 
Examinations for Quarter III 

Spring recess 

Registration for Quarter IV 
Quarter IV begins 



Monday, January 5 

Friday, January 16 
Wednesday, January 2 1 
Monday, January 26 
Tuesday, January 27- 
Friday, January 30 

Friday, January 30 and 

Monday, February 2 
Monday, February 2 
Monday, February 16 
Friday, April 3 
Monday, April 16- 

Thursday, April 9 
Monday, April 13, and 

Tuesday, April 14 
Tuesday, April 14 and 

Wednesday, April 1 5 
Wednesday, April 15 



iv 



Seventh Annual Vincent duVigneaud 
Memorial Research Symposium; no 
classes 

Last day for completing requirements tor 

May degrees 
Memorial Day Holiday observed 
Commencement Day, conferral of May 

degrees 

Quarter IV and Spring semester end 
Examinations for Quarter IV 



Tuesday, May 5 

Friday, May 22 
Monday, May 25 

Thursday, May 28 
Monday, June 15 
Tuesday, June 16- 
Friday, June 20 



Summer Term 1987 

Registration for summer research 

Summer research term begins 

I jst day for completing requirements for 

August degrees 
Summer research term ends 
Conferral of August degrees 



Monday, June 29 
Monday, June 29 

Friday, August 2 1 
Friday, August 2 1 
Monday, August 24 



•for students enrolling in courses 
"for students conducting research only, who are on leave of absence, or are in 
absentia. 

' "for students changing from course work to research, who are going on leave of 
absence, or who are converting to in absentia status. 

Note: Courses are taught on a quarterly basis; degrees are granted at ends of the 
Fall and Spring semesters and of the summer term. The dates shown in the 
calendar are subject to change at any time by official action of Cornell University. 

In enacting this calendar, the Graduate School of Medical Sciences has scheduled 
classes on religious holidays. It is the intent of the school that students missing 
classes due to the observance of religious holidays be given ample opportunity to 
make up work. 



s 



Cornell University 

Graduate School of Medical Sciences 



Purpose 

The Graduate School of Medical Sciences, a semi-autonomous component of the 
Graduate School of Cornell University, provides opportunities for advanced study 
and research training in specific areas of the biomedical sciences. Graduate 
programs leading to the degrees of Doctor of Philosophy are offered in biochem- 
ist ry, biophysics, cell and developmental biology, developmental therapy, genetics, 
immunology, molecular biology, microbiology, neurobiology and behavior, 
pathology, pharmacology, physiology, and virology. Certain of these fields of study 
also offer programs leading to the degree of Master of Science. Collaborative 
programs with Cornell University Medical College lead to the combined degrees of 
Doctor of Philosophy and Doctor of Medicine. 

The faculty of the Graduate School of Medical Sciences recommends the 
award of advanced general degrees not only as the result of the fulfillment of 
certain formal academic requirements, but also as evidence of the development 
and possession of a critical and creative ability in science. Demonstration of this 
ability is embodied in a dissertation which the candidate presents to the faculty as 
an original research contribution in the chosen area of study. 

A close working relationship between student and faculty is essential to the 
program of the Cornell University Graduate School of Medical Sciences. Guidance 
for each student is provided by a Special Committee, a group of at least three 
faculty members selected by the student. This Special Committee is granted 
extraordinary independence in working with its student. Other than a broad frame- 
work of Graduate School of Medical Sciences requirements for residence, examina- 
tions, and a thesis, and additional requirements of the particular field of study 
chosen by the student, the Special Committee is free to design an individualized 
program of study with its students. No overall course, credit-hour, or grade 
requirements are set by the Graduate School of Medical Sciences. A student is 
recommended for a degree whenever the Special Committee judges the student 
qualified 

History 

The opportunity for graduate study leading to advanced general degrees in the 
biomedical sciences was first offered at the Cornell University Medical College, in 
cooperation with the Graduate School of Cornell University, in 1912. In June of 
1950, Cornell University, in association with the Sloan Kettering Institute for 
Cancer Research, established additional opportunities for graduate study by 
forming the Sloan-Kcttcring Div ision of the Medical College. The resulting expan- 
sion of both graduate faculty and research training opportunities on the New York 
City campus prompted the organization in January 19S2 of the Graduate School of 



I 



Medical Sciences, composed of two cooperative but separate divisions, known as 
the Medical College Division and the Sloan-Kettering Division. The Graduate 
School of Medical Sciences was given full responsibility for advanced general 
degrees granted for study in residence on the New York City campus of Cornell 
University. 

Facilities 

Despite the divisional structure of the Graduate School of Medical Sciences, the 
courses offered by the two Divisions are open to all students, as are the general 
facilities of the Divisions such as libraries, dining facilities, and recreational 
resources. 

The Medical College Division. The buildings along York Avenue between 68th 
and 70th Streets accommodate both Cornell University Medical College and the 
Medical College Division of the Graduate School of Medical Sciences. Facilities 
available to graduate students include the Samuel J. Wood Library with a collection 
of over 136,000 volumes and subscriptions to 2,100 current journals, lecture 
rooms, teaching laboratories, seminar rooms and libraries of the basic science 
departments. Extensive research facilities are provided for faculty and students. 

The Sloan-Kettering Division. Its facilities are located within the Sloan-Kettering 
Institute for Cancer Research, which consists of the Howard, Kettering, and 
Schwartz Laboratory buildings on East 68th Street. In addition, the Walker Labora- 
tory is located in Rye, New York Each provides lecture and seminar rooms, and 
together represent more than 100 laboratories, which are available for biomedical 
research training. The Medical Library, Nathan Cummings Center with 25,300 
volumes of books and journals is located near the 68th Street complex. 

Organization 

The faculty of the Graduate School of Medical Sciences is composed of the faculties 
of the Medical College Division, consisting primarily of the professional staff of the 
basic sciences departments of Cornell University Medical College, and of the Sloan- 
Kettering Division, consisting of those professional staff members of the Sloan- 
Kettering Institute for Cancer Research who hold faculty appointments. 

Within each of the Divisions are Fields ( Medical College Division ) and Units 
(Sloan Kettering Division) of graduate instruction which are formed by the faculty 
members in the respective Divisions with similar research and teaching interests. 
These Fields and Units of the Graduate School of Medical Sciences, as well as the 
Interdivisional Programs, represent areas of concentration in which advanced 
degrees are offered. 

Executive Committee 

The Executive Committee is both the administrative and judicial board of the Grad- 
uate School of Medical Sciences and its members have continuing responsibility for 



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the academic affairs of the school. The Committee is composed of the Chairper- 
sons of the basic science departments of the Medical College Division and of the 
Programs of the Sloan-Kettering Division, the Directors of the interdisciplinary and 
interdivisional programs, the Dean and Associate Deans, the Provost for Medical 
Affairs of Cornell University, the Director and Associate Director of the Sloan- 
Kettering Division, the Chairperson and Vice-Chairperson of the Faculty Advisory 
Committee (see below), and two non-voting, elected student representatives. 

The Executive Committee considers such matters involving the interests and 
policies of the Craduate School of Medical Sciences as are referred to it by the 
Faculty Advisory Committee, by individual members of the Faculty, or are gener- 
ated upon its own initiative. The Committee approves the addition or deletion of 
fields of study, reviews the admission of students, approves a student's major and 
minor fields, reviews the curriculum and requirements for degrees. 

The Executive Committee is chaired by the Dean, who is the academic admin- 
istrative officer of the Graduate School of Medical Sciences and is also an Associate 
Dean of the Graduate School of Cornell University. An Associate Dean, who is also 
an Assistant Dean of the Graduate School of Cornell University, is the Secretary of 
the Executive Committee. 

Faculty Advisory Committee 

The Faculty Advisory Committee is the primary body representing the views of the 
Faculty of the Graduate School of Medical Sciences. The Committee advises the 
Dean and the Executive Committee on the impact of educational and policy 
matters under their consideration and recommends changes in educational activi- 
ties, procedures, and policy' of the Graduate School of Medical Sciences. 

The Faculty Advisory Committee is composed of one elected faculty represent- 
ative of each Field of the Medical College Division and of each Unit of the Sloan- 
Kettering Division, and one elected student representative from each Division. The 
Chairperson and Vice-Chairperson of the Committee are elected by its member- 
ship. Non-voting members are the Dean and Associate Deans, the Provost for 
Medical Affairs of Cornell University, and the Director and Associate Director of the 
Sloan-Kettering Division. 

Special Programs 

Medical Scientist Training Programs (M.D.-Ph.D.) 

These programs are designed to expose a student to both medical and graduate 
disciplines during a six-year course of study. The combination of skills in basic 
research and experience in a clinical setting will prepare graduates from this 
program to pursue investigative careers in the biomedical sciences or in clinical 
medicine. The student spends the first two years as a medical student studying the 
basic medical sciences and attending regular graduate seminars. The summer 
months are spent in the laboratory learning experimental techniques and doing 
research. The third, fourth, and fifth years of the student's program are spent as a 



3 



full-time graduate student and are devoted mainly to laboratory research and 
writing the thesis. The sixth year of the program is devoted to clinical clerkships. 
This six -year program represents the minimum time required to satisfy residence 
requirements of both the M.D. and Ph.D. degrees at Cornell University. Successful 
applicants to the program will become M.D.-Ph.D. Fellows and will receive a full 
tuition scholarship and a stipend covering living expenses for the six-year period. 

Separate Medical Scientist Training Programs are offered by the Medical 
College and Sloan-Kettering Divisions: 

M.D.-Ph.D. Program at the Medical College Division: Preclinical and clinical 
training are provided by the faculty of Cornell University Medical College, while 
graduate education in research is offered by the faculty of the Medical College Divi- 
sion of the Cornell University Graduate School of Medical Sciences. 
M.D.-Ph.D. Program at the Sloan-Kettering Division: This program is spon- 
sored collectively by the Sloan-Kettering Division and Cornell University Medical 
College. The program requirements include the research-based Sloan-Kettering 
Division Ph.D. curriculum and the Cornell University Medical College curriculum. 
For application to these programs, see p. 73. 

Ph.D.-M.D. Program 

Students enrolled in the Graduate School of Medical Sciences may be eligible for 
admission into the Ph.D.-M.D. Program, jointly sponsored by the Medical College 
and the Graduate School of Medical Sciences. This program is designed for those 
graduate students who find that their teaching and research goals require the 
acquisition of the M.D. degree in addition to the Ph.D. degree. The program is not 
designed as an alternate path for students who have the M.D. degree as their 
primary goal, but who have not been accepted by a medical school. Those who 
know, at the time of application to Cornell, that they want to pursue a course of 
study leading to both degrees should apply to one of the M.D.-Ph.D. programs 
described above. 

See p. 73 for application and graduation requirements of the Ph.D.-M.D. 
program. 



4 



Faculty and Research 
Activities 



Medical College Division 



Field of Biochemistry 
Faculty 



John P. Blass 
Adele L Boskey 
Esther M. Breslovv 
Arthur J. I.. Cooper 
Cordon F. Fairclough 
Jerald D. Gass 
Jaek Goldstein 
Owen W. Griffith 
David P. Hajjar 
Rudy H Haschemeyer 
Bernard L Horeeker 
Chun Yen Lai 
Ravniond E. I.oekard 



Ursula Mullcr-Eherhard 

Abraham Novogrodsky 

Aaron S. Posner 

Julian R. Rachele (Emeritus) 

Albert L Rubin 

Edward T. Schubert 

Richard L Softer 

Kurt H. Stenzel 

Suresh S. Tate 

Sidney Udenfriend 

Daniel Wellner 

Kenneth R. Woods 

David Zakim 



Alton Meister 

Research Activities 

Members of the field of Biochemistry are engaged in research spanning a wide 
spectrum of scientific areas. Thus, the research in Dr. Meister' s laboratory is 
concerned with the study of enzymes, especially those involved in amino acid, 
peptide, and protein metabolism. It involves the isolation of enzymes, the determi- 
nation of their structure and properties, and the use of techniques such as isolation 
of mRNA and cDNA. The research is basic in nature, but significant relationships 
between this research and human disease have been discovered and are also being 
explored. Current work involves the metabolism and function of glutathione, 
including the relationships of this tripeptide to transport, metabolism, radiation, 
and chemotherapy, 

Dr Boske/ s research is concerned with elucidating the factors controlling 
physiologic and dystrophic calcification. Hydroxyapatite formation and growth are 
studied in solution, in collagen gels, and in animal tissues. Recent studies have 
concentrated on the mechanism of action of proteoglycans (a mineralization inhib- 
itor) and acidic phospholipids (promoters of mineralization ) Studies are also in 
progress on the role of vitamin D metabolites in bone lipid metabolism. 

Dr Bresiow is concerned w ith understanding, in a quantitative sense, the 
forces that determine the specificity of protein-protein interactions. She has been 
studying the interactions of the pituitary peptide hormones, oxytocin and vaso- 
pressin, with their storage protein, neurophysin. These studies are directed 
tow ards elucidating the binding site regions of the hormones and of the protein 

Vietis of Manhattan from 
Cornell Medical Center. 



and at quantitating the energies of different components of the interaction. A 
second research project concerns the mechanism by which proteins are degraded 
intracellularly during normal protein turnover. The aims of these studies are to 
understand the precise role of ubiquitin, a small protein known to be involved in 
this process, and to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the selection of proteins 
for degradation. 

Dr. Cooper's laboratory is working in the area of a-keto acid biochemistry and 
pyridoxal phosphate enzymes. Another area of active research is the metabolism of 
amino acids and ammonia in the brain. For this purpose, molecules labeled with 
short-lived radioisotopes are synthesized and their distribution in brain is analyzed 
by positron emission tomography. Cerebral energy metabolism, with particular 
emphasis on the malate-aspartate shuttle, and its disruption in various disease states 
are also being investigated. 

Dr. Goldstein is studying the structure and function of erythrocyte surface 
antigens and is working on enzymatic methods for the removal of immuno- 
dominant sugars responsible for blood group A and B activity. 

Dr. Griffith's research involves the design, synthesis and utilization in vivo of 
enzyme-selective inhibitors and substrates. These compounds are used both to 
evaluate and to control the metabolite flux through various pathways in intact 
animals. Recent studies have focused on the manipulation of glutathione and 
cysteine metabolism. Enzyme-selective inhibitors were developed that allow both 
glutathione biosynthesis and utilization to be blocked; techniques allowing extra- 
cellular cystine formation to be controlled were also developed. The inhibitors 
were shown to be useful in treating animal trypanosomiasis, enhancing oxidative 
killing of tumor cells, and preventing the formation of leukotriene C. New inhibi- 
tors are now being developed to allow in vivo control of carnitine metabolism. 
Applications of these compounds include the investigation and therapy of inherited 
diseases of lipid metabolism and diabetes. 

Studies are currently in progress in Dr. Hajjafs laboratory to investigate the 
interaction of endothelial cells which line blood vessels with the underlying 
smooth muscle cells in an attempt to define the role of the endothelium in the 
process of cholesterol accumulation during arteriosclerosis. In addition, the role of 
herpes viruses as an etiological agent in the pathogenesis of lipid accumulation and 
arteriosclerosis is under investigation by studying the virus' effects on intracellular 
cholesterol metabolism and lipoprotein binding and metabolism. 

Research in Dr. Haschemeyefs laboratory concentrates on the development of 
physical methods to study molecular structure and interactions, and on the applica- 
tion of such methods to ascertain structure -function relationships in selected 
systems. Current emphasis is directed toward computer modeling of biological 
flow methods and heterogeneous-phase reactions and on immuno-electron micros- 
copy of human serum lipoproteins. 

Dr. Horecker is working on the isolation and characterization of peptides from 
the thymus gland and evaluation of their possible function as hormones that regu- 
late cellular immunity. The cloning of the genes for thymosin /S 4 and for prothy- 
mosin a is a major current objective. Another project concerns the role of intracel- 
lular proteinases in the regulation of cellular processes, including their function in 
the turnover of intracellular proteins and in the cytotoxic effects of human 
lymphocytes. 



8 



Dr. Lafs research is concerned with the structure and function of cholera 
toxin. Work from his laboratory has shown that subunit Al of cholera toxin is fully 
responsible for the toxin's ability to stimulate adenylate cyclase in mammalian cells. 
Isolated subunit A 1 was also shown to catalyze an efficient transfer of the ADP- 
ribose moiety from NAD to a membrane protein. In another project, evidence has 
been obtained for a two-domain structure of the angiotensin converting enzyme: 
the hydrophobic carboxy-terminal portion of the enzyme is anchored to the cell 
membrane and the amino-terminal half, with the active site, is exposed to the 
blood circulation. Structural analyses indicate that the lung and testis enzymes may 
be the products of two distinct genes, and experiments are in progress to explain 
the close similarities between the two enzymes. 

Dr. Lockarcfs research is directed towards understanding cytoplasmic control 
of eukaryotic gene expression. He is investigating the role of messenger RNA 
conformation in translational control and mRNA turnover. He is also studying the 
primary structure of rabbit 18S ribosomal RNA and its topography within the 40S 
subunit. 

Dr. Muller-Eberbard is investigating the mechanisms of transport of iron proto- 
porphyrin IX and its metabolic precursors by proteins in the blood stream as well 
as within hepatocytes. She is studying the exchange of porphyrins between 
proteins purified from serum and from hepatocytes; developing methods which 
delineate the function of these proteins in the delivery of porphyrins to hepato- 
cytes and their intracellular distribution; and assessing the interaction of these 
proteins with artificial and biological membranes to learn how they may facilitate 
ligand transport across cellular and intracellular barriers. 

Dr. Posner is studying bone mineral structure and properties with emphasis on 
the elucidation of the biochemical processes of tissue mineralization. Techniques 
such as x-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, and infrared absorption spectropho- 
tometry are used in this project. The role in the mineralization process of the 
organic constituents of bone, such as collagen and proteoglycans, is of prime 
interest. 

The main objective of Dr. Soffefs research is to characterize the physical, 
chemical, and biochemical properties of angiotensin II receptor which has been 
purified to a nearly homogeneous state from rabbit hepatic membranes. 

Dr. Stenzel and Dr. Novogrodsky are interested in determining molecular 
mechanisms involved in lymphocyte activation. They are utilizing a model system of 
lymphocyte stimulation induced by the mitogenic oxidizing agents, sodium perio- 
date and galactose oxidase. They are studying structural and functional alterations 
in cells rendered stimulatory by the oxidizing mitogens. These investigations 
include an analysis of the membrane sites oxidized and the possible cross-linked 
structures formed. Attempts are made to determine the requirements for stimula- 
tory activity by reconstructions of stimulatory structures using hybridization and 
fusion techniques. They are also investigating structural and functional alterations 
in cells responding to aldehyde-modified stimulatory cells and cell fractions, and 
their requirements for soluble growth factors Cell surface structures involved in 
accessory cell activity are being determined and biochemical events mediated by 
accessory cells or interleukin 1 are under study. A practical application of this work 
is a study to determine anti-tumor properties of lymphoid ceils activated with the 
oxidi/ing mitogens. 



9 



Current interest in Dr. Tate's laboratory is focused on the isolation, characteri- 
zation, and ultrastructural localization of enzymes responsible for the formation of 
modified N- and C-terminal residues of peptide hormones in the hypothalamus and 
the pituitary gland. Synthetic peptide substrates are being used to identify and 
isolate an enzyme from bovine pituitary glands which is responsible for the forma- 
tion of the C-terminal amide group of several hormones. In another project, three 
brush-border enzymes are being used as model systems to gain an understanding of 
the processes involved in the assembly of the highly specialized microvillus 
membranes. The enzymes under study are y-glutamyl transpeptidase, a dipeptidase, 
and aminopeptidase M. Current work includes a study of structure-function rela- 
tions in these enzymes, their biogenesis, post-translational processing and sorting, 
and achievement of their final intracellular location. 

Research in Dr. Wellnefs laboratory is concerned with the structure and func- 
tion of enzymes involved in amino acid metabolism, such as L-amino acid oxidase 
and threonine deaminase. Amino acid analyses of urine and blood of patients with 
inherited and acquired defects in amino acid metabolism are carried out as part of 
an effort to improve the diagnosis and treatment of these diseases. 

Recent Publications 



Blass, J. P. (with Sheu, K.-F. R, and Lai, J. C. K.), Pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphate phosphatase in 
brain: Activity, properties, and subcellular localization. J. Neurochem. 40:1366-1372, 1983- 

Blass, J. P. (with Sheu, K.-F. R, and Lai, J. C. K.), Properties and regional distribution of pyruvate dehy- 
drogenase kinase in rat brain. J. Neurochem. 42:230-236, 1984. 

Boskey, A. L. (with Chen, C-C, and Rosenberg, L. C), The inhibitory effect of cartilage proteoglycans on 
hydroxyapatite growth. Calcif. Tissue Int. 36:285-290, 1984. 

Boskey, A. L. (with Wians, F. H. Jr., and Hauschka, P. V.), The effect of osteocalcin on in vitro lipid- 

induced hydroxyapatite formation and seeded hydroxyapatite growth. Calcif. Tissue Int. 37:57- 
62, 1985. 

Breslow, E. (with Sardana, V. ), Proton magnetic resonance and binding studies of proteolytically modi- 
fied neurophysins. J. Biol. Chem. 259:3669-3679, 1984. 

Breslow, E. (with Whittaker, B., Allewell, N. M., and Carlson, J. ), Enthalpies of ligand binding to bovine 
neurophysins. Biochemistry 24:2782-2789, 1985. 

Cooper, A. J. L. (with Fitzpatrick, S. M., Ginos, Z., Kaufman, C, and Dowd, P.), Inhibition of glutamate- 
aspartate transaminase by /3-methylene-DL-aspartate. Biochem. Pharmacol. 32:679-689, 1983- 

Cooper, A. J. L. (with Mora, S. N, Cruz, N. F., and Gelbard, A. S. ), Cerebral ammonia in hyperammo- 
nemic rats. J. Neurochem. 44:1716-1723, 1985. 

Goldstein, J., Biochemical manipulation of blood groups. In: Clinics in Immunology and Allergy, van 
Rood, J. J., de Vreis, R. R P., eds., W. B. Saunders, London, Vol. 4, No. 3, 1984. 

Goldstein, J., (with Suyama, K., and Green, S.), Antitumor activity of normal human globulin: effect on 
murine and human erythroleukemic cells. Expl. Cell Biol. 53:93-99, 1985. 

Griffith, O. W. (with Jenkins, D. L ), Antiketogenic and hypoglycemic effects of aminocarnitine and 
acylaminocarnitines. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. US. 83:290-294, 1986. 

Griffith, O. W. (with Jenkins, D. L ), DL-aminocarnitine and acetyl-DL-aminocarnitine. J. Biol. Chem. 
260:14748-14755, 1985. 

Hajjar, D. P. (with Fabricant, C. G., and Fabricant, J. ), Altered cholesteryl ester cycle is associated with 
lipid accumulation in herpesvirus-infected arterial smooth muscle cells. J. Biol. Chem. 260:6124- 
6128, 1985. 

Hajjar, D. P. (with Etingin, O. R.), Nifedipine increases cholesteryl ester hydrolytic activity in lipid-laden 
rabbit arterial smooth muscle cells: A possible mechanism for its atherogenic effect. J. Clin. 
Invest. 75:1554-1558, 1985. 



10 



Hxschcmcycr, R H (with Todd, G P ) Generalized finite clement solution to one dimensional flux 
problems. Biophysical ( hem 17:321-336, 1983 

Haschcmeyer, R. H (with Wall, J . Hainfcld.J . and Mossesson, M. W ), Analysis of human fibrinogen by 
scanning transmission electron microscopy, Annals N.Y. Acad. Sci. 408:164-179, 1983- 

Horcckcr, B L (with Haritos, A. A., Blather, R , Stein. S., and Caldarella, J ), Primary structure of rat 
thymus prothymosin a. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 82:343-346, 1985 

Horcckcr. B L (with Komiyama. T , Lu-Xing, P., Haritos, A. A., and Janusz, W W. ), The primary strut 
ture of rat parathymosin. Proc Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 83:1242-1245, 1986 

Lai, C-Y. (with Duffy, L K. and Kurosky, A ). Cholera Toxin A subunit: Functional site correlated with 
regions of a secondary structure Arch Biochcm Biophys 23°:5-»9-555, 1985 

Lai, C-Y., Bacterial protein toxins with latent ADP-ribosyi transferase activities. Adv. Enzymol. 58:99-140, 
1986 

Uxkard, R. K. (with Connaughton. J F , Rairkar, A., and Kumar, A. ), Primary structure of rabbit 18S ribo- 
somal RNA determined by direct RNA sequence analysis. Nucleic Acids Research 12:4731-4745, 
1984 

Lockard, R. E. (with Garrett-Wheeler, E., and Kumar. A ), Mapping psoralen cross-linked nucleotides in 
RNA. Nucleic Acids Research 12:3405-3423, 1984. 

Meister, A, New aspects of glutathione biochemistry and transport; Selective alteration of glutathione 
metabolism Fed Proc. 43:3031-3042, 1984. 

Meister, A., The fall and rise of cellular glutathione levels: Enzyme-based approches. In: Current Topics 
in CelluLir Regulation. 26383-394, 1985. (Academic Press). 

Muller-Eberhard, 11 (with Cannon, J. B., Kuo, F-S., Pasternack, R. F., and Wong. N. M. ), Kinetics of the 
interaction of hemin liposomes with heme binding proteins. Biochemistry 23:3715-3721, 1984. 

Muller Fberhard. U. (with Vincent, S. H. ). Concepts of heme distribution within hepatocytes (Commen- 
tary). Biochem Pharmacol 34(d):^ 19-725, 1985. 

Novogrodsky, A. (with Stcnzel. K H., Arnold, A., and Rubin, A. L), Mitogenic properties of neuramini- 
dase and galactose oxidase treated lymphoblastoid cells and plasma membranes for peripheral 
blood lymphocytes. J Immunol. 133:2569-2576, 1984. 

Novogrodsky, A. (with Stenzel, K H., Arnold, A., Upkowitz, S.. Rubin. A. L, and Suthanthiran, M.), 

Human B lymphoblastoid cell lines provide an interleukin 1 -like signal for mitogen-treated T 
lymphocytes via direct cell contact. J Immunol. 134:3876-3883. 1985. 

Posoer, A. S. (with McGann, T. C. A, Kearney, R. D., Buchheim. W , Belts, F., and Blumenthal, N. C), 
Amorphous calcium phosphate in casein micelles of bovine milk. Calcif. Tis. Int. .35:821-823, 
1983 

Posner, A. S. (with Thompson. 1) D . I-aughlin. W S , and Blumenthal, N. C ), Comparison of bone 
apatite in osteoporotic and normal eskimos. Calcif. Tis. Int. 35:392-393, 1983 

Soffcr. R. L (with Sen. I . and Bull, H. G. ). Isolation of an angiotensin II binding protein from liver Proc. 
Natl Acad Sci. USA 81 1679- 1683, 1984. 

StenzeL K. tt ( w ith Suthanthiran, M., Williams P S Solomon. S D., and Rubin, A L ). Induction of cyto- 
lytic activity by anti-T. monoclonal antibody: Activation of alloimmunc memory cells and natural 
killer cells from normal and immunodeficient individuals J Clin Invest. 74:2263-2271, 1984. 

Stcnzel. K H. (with Upkowitz, S., Greene. W. C. Rubin. A. L, and Novogrodsky, A. ), Expression of 

receptors for interieuldn-2 Role in the commitment of T lymphoevtes to proliferate J. Immunol 
13231-41, 1984. 

Tate. S. S (with Nash. B ), In titrt> translation and prtKessing of rat kidney y glutamyl transpeptidase. J. 
Biol Chem 259:6"*8^85, 1984. 

Tate, S S., Single-chain precursor of renal y glutamyl transpeptidase FEBS IjcU 194:33 .38, 1986. 

\Xellner, D (with Stoner, E., Starkman. H , Wellner, V. P., Sassa. S.. Rifkind. A B.. Grenier, A, Steinherz, P. 
G., Meister. A.. New, M. L, and lx-vinc, L S. ), BitKhemical studies of a patient with hereditary 
hepatorenal tyrosincmia Evidence of glutathione deficiency Pediatr Res 181332-1336. 1984. 



11 



Field of Cell Biology and Genetics 



Faculty 




Fred Allen 


David M. Phillips 


Rosemary Bachvarova 


Enrique M. Rabellino 


David M. Bader 


Joan Rankin Shapiro 


Arthur Bank 


James H. Ray 


J. Michael Bedford 


Michael Risley 


Celso Bianco 


Toby C. Rodman 


Adele L. Boskey 


Enrique Rodriguez-Boulan 


Peter G. Bullough 


Brij B. Saxena 


Raju S. Chaganti 


Peter Sherline 


Moses V. Chao 


Selma Silagi 


Donald A. Fischman 


Marcello Siniscalco 


James L. German III 


Julio L. Sirlin 


Marvin Gershengorn 


Lisa Staiano-Coico 


Lloyd H. Graf 


Paul Szabo 


Barbara H. Hosein 


Martin Teintze 


Patricia A. Jacobs 


Paula Traktman 


Eric Jaffe 


Doris A. Wall 


Ralph L. Nachman 


Babette B. Weksler 


Joel D. Pardee 


David Zakim 



Research Activities 

Research is conducted in a broad range of fields which include the most exciting 
areas of genetics and cell, developmental and molecular biology. Excellent facilities 
and the most current methodologies are available. 

The aim of Dr. Bachvarova's research is to understand the control of gene 
expression during meiotic maturation and early development of mammalian 
embryos. The role of maternal factors in the egg, and the differential expression 
and processing of mRNA's in the developing oocyte and embryo are being investi- 
gated. Dr. Badefs laboratory is concerned with the development of the heart. 
Specific interests are the differential expression of myosin heavy chains in the 
developing myocardium, and the mechanisms by which myocardial heterogeneity 
are generated. Monoclonal antibody and recombinant DNA technologies provide 
the basis for these studies of cardiac myogenesis in vivo and in vitro. Processes in 
both the male and female reproductive systems which contribute to conception 
are the focus of research in Dr. Bedford's laboratory. The cellular events undergone 
by spermatozoa during their maturation in the epididymis are under study; in the 
female, research is directed toward understanding sperm capacitation, sperm trans- 
port to the site of fertilization, and to the mechanism of fertilization. 

The research in Dr. Bullough's laboratory concerns bone morphology, with a 
special interest in cartilage structure and joint geometry. Dr. Chagantfs laboratory 
is studying the role of hereditary factors in the etiology of human cancer. Molec- 



12 



ular, cytogenetic and epidemiologic approaches are being taken. Two main foci are 
the isolation and characterization of rccessivety inherited genes which appear to 
create a predisposition to chromosome breakage, and the study of the position and 
activation of cellular oncogenes. Dr. Cbao's research interests focus on gene 
expression and regulation in mammalian cells. Cell surface molecules which regu- 
late and change the pattern of transcription are under study. Molecular genetic 
techniques are being applied to such molecules as the human nerve growth factor 
receptor and specific human carcinoma and melanoma surface antigens. 

Dr. Fiscbmaris research focuses on the cell and molecular biology of sarco- 
mere assembly in developing skeletal and cardiac muscle. Monoclonal antibody and 
recombinant DNA technologies, as well as electron microscopy and fluorescence 
energy transfer, are being applied to the study of post-translation steps involved in 
m\<>fihrillogenesis. Several aspects of human genetics are under study in Dr. 
German's laboratory, including disturbances of malformation, disturbances of 
sexual development, and human cancer. Somatic cell genetic and cytogenetic 
approaches are being used. The focus of Dr. Gerscbengorn's laboratory is the 
understanding of hormonal regulation of cellular secretion. In particular, the stimu- 
lation of the anterior pituitary gland's secretion of thyroid-stimulating hormone and 
prolactin by thyrotropin-releasing hormone is under study. Research is now 
centered on the apparent importance of calcium in this system, and on phosphoin- 
ositides, which are implicated in cellular calcium homeostasis. 

Dr. Jacob's laboratory is involved in cytogenetic and molecular analysis of 
human chromosome abnormalities, with emphasis on studying trisomies and the 
fragile X chromosome. 

Dr.Jaffe's interest is in the response of endothelial cells to exogenous stimuli; 
current research includes study of the interaction of thrombin with endothelial cell 
surface proteins and the resultant induction of prostaglandin and thrombospondin 
production. Interactions of endothelial cells and white blood cells is also under 
study. 

The focus of work in Dr. Nacbman's laboratory is the biochemistry of platelet 
membranes and the macromolecular assembly of adhesive proteins on various cell 
surfaces and in the extracellular matrix. The structure and function of blood vessel 
walls is also under study. />. Pardee's research is concerned with the regulation of 
the actin cytoskeleton by actin-binding proteins. Two such regulatory proteins, 
severin and an actin filament bundling factor, have been isolated and are being 
analyzed for their roles in cell migration, cell-substrate adhesion and neoplastic 
transformation. The laboratory of Dr. Risky employs cell and organ culture tech- 
niques to elucidate the cellular and molecular parameters important for the regula- 
tion of spermatogenesis. Tissue culture and cytogenetic methods are being used to 
investigate the chemical induction of heritable chromosome aberrations. 

Dr. Rodriguez-Boulan's main interest is an understanding of the cellular and 
molecular mechanisms that regulate the traffic and targeting of membrane proteins 
in eucaryotic cells, with an emphasis on the polarized distribution of apical and 
basolateral plasma membrane proteins in epithelial cells. Some specific topics are 
the determination of factors which aid in establishing polarity and the sorting 
signals which target specific proteins to their destinations Dr Sberline's research is 
directed towards understanding the role of microtuble associated proteins (MAP) 
in the regulation of microtubule assembly and function With a particular interest 



13 



in the role of MAP'S in the centrosome, immunological techniques are being used 
to study MAP distribution, metabolism and function during the cell cycle and in 
response to hormones and growth factors. 

The main focus of Dr. Traktman's research is a molecular genetic analysis of 
vaccinia virus. Of particular interest are the temporal regulation of gene expression 
and the coordination of viral DNA replication. A variety of molecular, genetic and 
biochemical techniques are being employed to identify and characterize viral func- 
tions involved in DNA replication and the maintenance of DNA conformation. Dr. 
WalTs laboratory conducts research in membrane biology, with an emphasis on 
receptor-mediated endocytosis and an analysis of intracellular membrane systems. 
The Xenopus oocyte is being used as a model cell to study the pathways of ligands 
and receptors during endocytosis, and the establishment and maintenance of 
distinct membrane systems during oogenesis and early embryonic development. 



Recent Publications 



Bachvarova, R (with Kaplan, G. and Jelinek, W. R), Repetitive Sequence Transcripts and Ul RNA in 
Mouse Oocytes. Devel. Bio. 109:15-24, 1985. 

Bachvarova, R Gene expression during oogenesis and oocyte development in mammals. In: Develop- 
mental Biology, A Comprehensive Synthesis, vol. 1, L. Browder, ed. pp. 453-523, 1985. 

Bader, D. B. (with Zadeh, B. J., Gonzalez-Sanchez, A., and Fischman, D. A.), Myosin heavy chain expres- 
sion in embryonic cardiac cell cultures. Devel. Biol. 1 15:204-214, 1985. 

Bader, D. B. (with Gonzalez-Sanchez, A ), Characterization of a myosin heavy chain in the conductive 
system of the adult and developing chicken heart. J. Cell. Biol. 100:270-275, 1985. 

Bank, A, The world of new genetics. In: Human Molecular Genetics. Ramirez, F., ed., Marcel Dekker, 
1984. 

Bank, A. (with Mears, J. G ), The genetic defects in the thalassemias. In: Current Topics in Hematology, 
Piomelli, S., ed. Alan R Liss, ed., 1984. 

Bedford, J. M. (with Witkin, S. S ), Influence of complement depletion on sperm function in the female 
rabbit. J. Reproduct. Fertil. 69:523-528, 1983. 

Bedford, J. M. (with Rodger, J. C, and Breed, W. G. ), Why so many mammalian spermatozoa— a clue 
from marsupials. Proc. Roy. Soc, B. 221:221-233, 1984. 

Bianco, G, Fibrin, fibronectin and macrophages. In: Molecular Biology of Fibrinogen and Fibrin, M. W. 
Mosesson & R. F. Doolittle, eds. Ann. NY Acad. Sci. 408:602-609, 1983. 

Bianco, C. (with Godfrey, H. P., Channabasappa, V. A, and Wolstencroff, R A.), Localization of macro- 
phage (agglutination factor activity) to the gelatin binding domain of fibronectin. J. Immunol. 
133:1417-1423, 1984. 

Boskey, A. L. (with Timchak, D. M., and Vigorita, V.), Lipid involvement in non-osseous tissue repair. 
Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 174:59-64, 1983. 

Boskey, A. L. (with Timchak, D. M.), Phospholipid changes in the bones of the Vitamin D deficient, 
phosphate deficient, immature rats. Metabolic Bone Dis. & Related Res. 5:81-84, 1984. 

Bullough, P. G. (with Vigorita, V. J. ), In: An Atlas of Orthopaedic Pathology. Gower Medical Publ., Ltd., 
London, 1984. Univ. Park Press, Baltimore, MD, 1984. 

Bullough, P. G. (with Boskey, A. L., and Lewinson, D.), The effects of trifluoroperazine on calcifying 
tissues in the immature rat. Proc. Soc. Exp. Bio. & Med. 176:154-163, 1984. 

Chaganti, R S. K., Significance of chromosome change to hematopoietic neoplasms. Blood 62:515-525, 
1983. 



14 



Chaganti. R S K. (with Schneider, N. R., Chaganti, S. R . and German. J ), Familial predisposition to 
cancer and age at onset oi disease in random!) selected cancel patients Am J. Hum Genet 
35:454-467, 1983 

Chao, M. V. (with Mill, J. F., and Ishii, D. N ). Insulin, insulin-like growth factor 11, and nerve growth 
factor effects on tubulin mRNA synthesis and neurite formation. Froc. Natl. Acad. ScL 82:7126- 
7130, 1985. 

Chao, M. V (with Bothwell. M. A., Ross, A. H., Koprowski, H., I an ah an. A., Buck, C R., and Schgal, A.), 
Gene ttansfel and molecular cloning of the human NGF receptor Science 2 32 518-521, 1986. 

Flschman, I). A. (with Saad, A. D., and Pardee. J. D. ). Fluorescence energy transfer studies of myosin 
thick filament assembly Hiophys. J. 49:140-142. 1986. 

Fischman. D. A. (with Shimizu, T, Dennis, J. E., and Masaki, T. ), Axial arrangement of the myosin rod in 
vertebrate thick filaments: Immunoelectron microscopy with a monoclonal antibody to light 
meromyosin J Cell. Biol. 101:1115-1123, 1985. 

German, J., editor, Chromosome Mutation and Neoplasia Alan R. Liss, Inc., New York. 1983 

German. J.. Ihc embryonic stress hypothesis of teratogenesis. Am. J. Med. 76:293 .301, 1984. 

Gershengorn, M. C. (with Kolesnick. R. N. ), Arachidonic acid inhibits thyTotropin-releasing hormone- 
induced elevation of cytoplasmic free calcium in GH } pituitary cells. J. Biol. Chem. 260, 707-713, 
1985 

Gershengorn, M. C. (with Kolesnick, R. N ), Direct evidence that burst but not sustained secretion of 
prolactin stimulated by thyrotropin-releasing hormone is dependent on elevation of cytoplaMiin 
calcium. J. Biol. Chem! 260, 5217-5220, 1985. 

Hoscin. B (with Palmer. G. ), The kinetics and mechanism of oxidation of reduced spinach ferredoxin 
bv molecular oxygen and its reduced products Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 723:383-390, 
1983 

Jacobs, P A. (with Abruzzo, M. A., and Mayer, M ), Effect of methionine and 5-azacytidine on fragile X 
expression Am. J Hum. Genet. .37: 193- 198, 1985. 

Jacobs, P. A. (with Abruzzo, M. A., and Mayer M ), Aging and aneuploidy: Evidence for the preferential 
involvement of the inactive X chromosome. Cytogenet. Cell Genet. 69:275-278, 1985. 

Jaffe. E. A. (with Steinberg, S. F.. and Bilezikian, J. P.). Endothelial cells contain beta adrenergic recep- 
tors. Naunyn-Schmicdeberg's Arch. Pharmacol. 325:310-313. 1984. 

Jaffe. E A. ( with Ruggiero. J T . and Falcone. D. J. ), Monocytes synthesize and secrete thrombospondin 
Blood 65:79-84, 1985. 

Nachman, R. L ( with Pollev, M. J ), Human platelet activation by C3a and C3a des arg. J. Exp. Med. 
158683-615, 1983. 

Nachman, R. L (with Leung, L L K., Kloczewiak. M , and Hawiger.J), Complex formation of platelet 
membrane glycoprotein lib and Ilia with fibrinogen D domain. J Biol. Chem. 259:8584-8588, 
1984. 

Phillips, D M (with Kalay. D ), Observation on mechanisms of flagellar motility deduced from back 
wards swimming bull sperm. J Exp Zool. 231 109-1 16, 1984. 

Phillips, D. M.. Problems in the analysis of mammalian fertilization In / JtrustTUCture of Reprodui lion 
and Fj.tr l y Development, Van Berkom and Motta. ed& pp lo6. 1984. 

Rahellino, F. M. (with U-venc, R. B., Nachman, R. I... and U"ung. I. LK.), Human megakaryocytes III. 
Characterization in myeloproliferative disorders. BltxxJ 6.3 615-622, 1984. 

Rahellino. F. . Biology of human megakaryotes: Recent developments. In: Progress in Hemostasis and 
Thrombosis. Spaet. T , ed.. Grune and Stratton, New York. 1984 (vol 7), in press 

Risky. M "The organization of meiotic chromosomes and synaptonemal complexes." In Chromosome 
Structure and Function ( M. Risley. ed. ). Von Nostrand-Reinhold Co., New York, 1 986 

Risky. M (with Einheber. S . and Bumcrot. D ), Changes in DNA topology during spermatogensis. 
( hromosoma, in press 



1^ 



Rodman, T. C. (with Pruslin, F. H ), Proteins of demembraned protamine-depleted mouse sperm. 

Homology with proteins of somatic cell nuclear envelope/matrix. Exp. Cell Res. 144:1 15-126, 
1983. 

Rodman, T. C. (with Pruslin, F. H, Chiorazzi, N, Michelis, M. A., and Winston, R.), pi 5, A nuclear- 
associated protein of human sperm. Identification of four variants and their occurrence in normal 
and abnormal seminal cells. Gamete Res. 8:129-147, 1983. 

Rodriguez-Boulan, E. (with Salas, P. J., Misek, D. E., Vega-Salas, D. E., Gundersen, D., and Cereifido, M ), 
Microtubules and actin filaments are not critically involved in the biogenesis of epithelial cell 
surface polarity. J. Cell Biol. 102:1853-1867, 1986. 

Rodriguez-Boulan, E. (with Salas, P. J., Vega-Salas, D. E., Misek, D.), Intracellular routes of apical and 
basolateral plasma membrane proteins to the surface of epithelial cells. Pflugers Arch. 405 
(suppl. 1):S152-S157, 1985. 

Rubinstein, P. (with Walker, M., Mollen, N., Laubenstein, L., and Friedman-Kien, A), Immunogenetic 
findings in patients with epidemic Kaposi's Sarcoma. In: The Acquired Immune Deficiency 
Syndrome and Infections of Homosexual Men. Armstrong, D. and Ma, P., eds., Chapter 25, York 
Medical Books., U.SA., N.Y., pp. 362-380, 1983. 

Rubinstein, P. (with Rothman, W. M., and Friedman-Kien, A.), Immunologic and immunogenetic find- 
ings in patients with epidemic Kaposi's sarcoma. Antibiot. Chemother. 32:87-98, 1984. 

Saxena, B. B. (with Dattatreyamurty, B., and Rathnam, P.), Isolation of the luteinizing hormone- 
chorionic gonadotropin receptor in high yield from bovine corpora lutea. J. Biol. Chem. 
258:3140-3158, 1983. 

Saxena, B. B. (with Rathnam, P.), A "sandwich" solid-phase enzyme immuno assay for lutropin in urine. 
Clin. Chem. 30:665, 1984. 

Shapiro, J. R. (with Shapiro, W. R.), Clonal tumor cell heterogeneity. In: Progressive Experimental Brain 
Tumor Research, M. L. Rosenblum and C. B. Wilson, eds. Vol. 27:49-66, Karger, Basel, Switzer- 
land, 1984. 

Shapiro, J. R. (with Pu, P.-Y, and Shapiro, W. R.), Resistant cells in human gliomas. In: Human Tumor 
Cloning, Salmon, S. E., and Trent, J. M., eds. Grune & Stratton, Orlando, 1984. In Press. 

Silagi, S. (with Graf, L. H, Jr., and Kaplan, P.) , Mediated transfer of selectable genes and unselected 

sequences into differentiated and undifferentiated mouse melanoma clones. Som. Cell & Molec. 
Gen. 10:139-151, 1984. 

Silagi, S. (with Graf, L. H., Jr. ), 5-Azacytidine induces melanin and plasminogen activator in amelanotic 
cells in culture. Proc. Xllth Int'l Pigment Cell Conf. p. 206. 1983. 

Siniscalco, M., Molecular mapping of the human genome: A crossroad between basic and applied 

research. Banbury Report *14: Recombinant DNA Application to Human Disease. Cold Spring 
Laboratory, 1983. 

Siniscalco, M. (Szabo, P., and Grzeschik, K H), A human autosomal phosphoglycerate kinase locus maps 
near the HLA cluster. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 81:3167-3169, 1984. 

Traktman, P. (with Sridhar, P., Condit, R. C, and Roberts, B. E ), Transcriptional mapping of the DNA 
polymerase gene of vaccinia virus. J. Virology 49:125-131, 1984. 

Wall, D. A. (with Meleka, I.), An unusual lysosome compartment involved in vitellogenin endocytosis by 
Xenopus oocytes. J. Cell Biol. 101:1651-1664, 1985. 

Wall, D. A. (with Hubbard, A L.), Receptor-mediated endocytosis of asialoglycoproteins by rat liver 
hepatocytes: biochemical characterization of the endosomal compartments. J. Cell Biol. 
101:2104-2112, 1985. 

Zakim, D. (with Hochman, Y, and Kenney, W. C), Evidence for an active site arginine in UDP- 
glucuronyltransferase. J. Biol. Chem. 258:6430-6434, 1983. 

Zakim, D. (with Hochman, Y), Studies of the catalytic mechanism of UDP-glucuronyltransferase. a- 

glucuronidase activity and its stimulation of phospholipids. J. Biol. Chem. 259:5521-5525, 1984. 



16 



Field of Microbiology, Immunology and Pathology 

Faculty 

Daniel R. Alonso 
Francis Barany* 
Carl G. Becker 
Kenneth [. Berns' 
Peter Bullough 
Robert W. Dickerman 
Paul Edelson 
John T. Ellis 
Erik Falck-Pedersen* 
David Hajjar 
William Holloman' 
Aaron Kellner 
Jan S. Keithly 
C. Richard Minick 
Henry W. Murray 

'Participants in the lntcrilivisional Program in Molecular Biology 

Research Activities 

The research activities in the Field of Microbiology, Immunology and Pathology 
cover a broad spectrum of interests including: the molecular biology and structure 
of microorganisms, host response to foreign antigens and the mechanisms and 
natural history of disease. 

Emphasis is given to the molecular biology of microorganisms as it underlies 
their replication and the mechanisms of microbial pathogenesis. Microbes are of 
interest because their simplicity renders them attractive model systems to study 
the fundamental processes of life; on the other hand, they are of intrinsic interest as 
subjects to study both as a distinctive life form and because of their impact on 
other forms of life as parasites and/or symbionts. Because of the rapid development 
of molecular biological techniques, in particular genetic engineering, microbiolo- 
gists are now in a uniquely favorable position to ask ever more meaningful and 
sophisticated questions about basic mechanisms and then to apply the answer to 
practical problems of infectious diseases. Currently, both basic and applied studies 
of viruses, bacteria, fungi, and parasites are ongoing within the Field. 

Major programs arc also directed to the study of cardiovascular disease and 
how basic pathophysiologic processes such as inflammation, blood coagulation and 
pertubation in the immune system and its regulation contribute to arteriosclerosis 
and its complications and the pathogenesis of Chagas' disease or South American 
trypanosomiasis. Together, these diseases are the major causes of cardiovascular 
deaths world-wide. Much of the research carried out involves extensive collabora- 
tion with investigators in other disciplines, especially immunology and hematology'. 
We are convinced that this interdisciplinary approach is essential to understanding 



Micheal E. O'Donnell' 
William M. O'Leary 
Carol K. Petito 
Alfred M. Prince 
Fred Quimby 
Jeffrey A. Ravetch ' 
Constance D. Rothermel 
Charles A. Santos-Buch 
Laurence B. Senterfit 
Gregory W. Siskind 
Kurt H. Stenzel 
Dieter H. Sussdorf 
Paula Traktman' 
Marc E. Weksler 



1" 



diesase mechanisms and also provides a unique opportunity for graduate students 
by increasing the intellectual diversity of the research program. 

Many members of the program also have clinical responsibilities. We regard 
this as a major research resource because problems relating to the diagnosis, 
etiology, and mechanisms of progressional disease processes arise constantly. 
Presentation and discussion of these make up an important part of the educational 
conferences within the Field. They also provide a never ending source of subjects 
and ideas for both basic and applied research. 

Dr. Alonso's research concerns the pathology of cardiovascular disease, 
including the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, heart attacks and valvular heart 
disease. 

Dr. Barany is concerned with two areas. The first has to do with protein engi- 
neering. He has developed a promising technique by which two additional amino 
acids can be inserted at any place along a protein using the modern techniques of 
molecular genetics and recombinant DNA technology. He is using this approach to 
characterize the specific biological activities of different domains of several 
proteins. Secondly, Dr. Barany is interested in developing DNA transformation as a 
genetic tool in the study of trypanosomes. 

Dr. Carl G. Becker's research concerns the elucidation of the mechanisms by 
which tobacco constituents induce cardiovascular disease, including progression of 
arteriosclerosis and trombosis through mechanisms that involve the immune 
system. These studies also include the mechanisms by which smoking is associated 
with the development of chronic pulmonary disease through activation of inflam- 
matory pathways. 

Research in Dr. Berns' laboratory concentrates on the elucidation of the mech- 
anisms of replication of the defective human parvovirus, adeno-associated virus. 
These studies include DNA structure, the role of latent infection in the replication 
process, and gene regulation. 

Dr. Dickerman's research relates to the ecology of arboviruses. 

Dr. Edelson studies the relationship between intracellular parasites and phago- 
cytic cells. He is interested in the physiology of macrophage activation and recently 
has studied the role of macrophage plasma membrane enzymes as differentiation 
markers during macrophage activation. 

Dr. Ellis' research concerns the natural history of polycythemia vera and other 
myeloproliferative disorders of the hematopoietic system. 

Dr. Falck-Pedersen investigates the mechanism of regulation of RNA transcrip- 
tion in eukaryotic cells. He is currently using the adenovirus genome as a model 
system in which to study cis acting sequences responsible for the termination of 
transcription. He has been able to demonstrate that specific sequences are asso- 
ciated with termination of RNA synthesis. 

Dr. Hajjafs research concerns the biology of the cellular constituents of blood 
vessels and changes in these that lead to the development of atherosclerosis. He is 
particularly interested in the role of viral infection in the development of 
arteriosclerosis. 

Research in Dr. Hollomaiis laboratory centers on the biochemistry and 
molecular biology of genetic recombination utilizing the fungus Ustilago maydis as 
a model system. Dr. Holloman has been able to develop an in vitro assay for homo- 
logous DNA recombination. The specific steps involved in the process of recombi- 



18 



nation and the specific substrates required for eac step are currently being defined 
in his laboratory. The gene coding for the enzyme is being cloned and its regula- 
tion in mitotic and meiotic cells is being investigated. 

Dr. Keithly's research is directed toward an understanding of the genetics of 
virulence in Leishmania. Currently she is in the process of isolating and character- 
izing the genes for ornithine decarboxylase and trypanothione reductase, two 
enzymes essential for growth, differentiation and survival of leishmania. 

Dr. Olearys research is directed toward characterization of the lipid constitu- 
ents in the membranes of bacteria and how these have been influenced by the 
advent of antibiotics. He is also interested in developing instrumentation for micro- 
biological analysis. 

The primary aim of Dr. Murray's work is the basis and expression of macro- 
phage activation for enhanced antimicrobial activity. Toxoplasma gondii, Leish- 
manial donoi'ani, and Mycobacterium aiium-intracellular are used in in vitro and 
in vivo models as intracellular probes by which to examine the role of T cell- 
derived activating factors such as gamma interferon and interleukin-2. T cell- 
deficient AIDS patients are also being studied to determine the role and effect of 
immunoreplacement therapy with gamma interferon and interleukin 2 in man. 

The focus of Dr. M. O'DonnelFs laboratory is a detailed examination of the 
molecular mechanics of DNA replication. The dynamic motions on templates of the 
multi-protein replicative polymerase of E. coli and its interaction with other 
proteins at the replication fork are under study. Another project is the reconstruc- 
tion of the replication of Herpes simplex virus Type 1 from purified proteins. 

Dr. Petito investigates the response of constituents of the central nervous 
system to injury, particularly ischemic injury. This research is particularly relevant 
to the pathogenesis of and the recover)' from the effects of stroke. Clinical research 
includes a study of neuropathological abnormalities in AIDS. 

Dr. Prince's laboratory, at the New York Blood Center, is interested in the 
pathogenesis and prevention of viral hepatitis and other viral diseases transmitted 
through blood or blood products, particularly AIDS. In addition, studies on immu- 
nologic aspects of the parasite Onchocerca ivliulus are underway. 

In Dr. Quimby's laboratory', the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases in dogs 
and laboratory animals is being investigated, with special emphasis on the role of 
functional subpopulation of T-lymphocytes as well as circulating immune 
complexes. Recently, a project aimed at elucidating the role of both active and 
passive immunity in toxic shock syndrome, was initiated, with emphasis on the 
pathogenetic role of toxin-antitoxin complexes using a baboon model. 

Dr. Rothermer s laboratory is concerned with the nature of persistent infec- 
tions with Chlamydia, the effect of interferon on chlamydial replication, the role of 
interferons and the mononuclear phagocyte system in controlling persistent infec- 
tion, and the production of soluble immunoregulatory factors by the infected host 

Dr. Santos Ruch's research concerns the pathogenesis of Chagas Disease, or 
South American trypanosomiasis. This research is aimed at elucidating the mecha- 
nisms by which trypanosomes infect host cells, and by which the immune response 
to these parasites can damage cardiac muscle. 

Dr. Senterfit studies the antigentic structure and pathogenesis of mycoplasma 
with a special emphasis on the role of the attachment organelle. He is also earning 
out research on the biology of respiratory syncytial virus. 



19 



Dr. Siskind is concerned with factors regulating the immune response. In 
particular, he is studying ( 1 ) the role of idiotype anti-idiotype interactions in deter- 
mining clonal expression and (2) the role of T cells bearing receptors for the Fc of 
IgD in regulating the magnitude of the immune response. 

Dr. StenzePs areas of investigation include the study of a membrane associated 
interleukin 1 — like activity. He is examining the membrane molecules on human 
B lymphoblastoid cell lines that provide accessory activity for mitogen-treated, 
highly purified, T lymphocytes. A second project centers on the anti-tumor proper- 
ties of lymphocytes activated by the oxidizing mitogens. Preclinical and clinical 
studies are underway to determine mechanisms of tumor cell destruction by acti- 
vated lymphoid populations and their efficacy in reducing tumor burden in patients 
with metastatic renal cancer. 

Research in Dr. Traktmaris laboratory involves the molecular genetics of the 
replication of vaccinia virus DNA with a special emphasis on identification of the 
genes and the enzymes for which they code that are involved in this process. 
Currently, the vaccinia virus encoded topoisomerase has been isolated and its role 
in the replication process is currently being studied in detail. 

Dr. Weksler's research concerns two areas: ( 1 ) The Biology of autoreactive T 
lymphocytes and ( 2 ) the immunobiology of aging. The former studies are aimed at 
understanding the development and regulation of the immune system; the latter at 
understanding the biological processes that lead to the diseases of aging. 

Recent Publications 

Alonso, D. R (with Fernandes, G., Tanaka, T., et al.), Influence of diet on vascular lesions in 
autoimmune-prone mice. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci 80:874-877, 1983. 

Alonso, D. R (with Weksler, B. B., Pett, S. B., et al.), Differential inhibition by aspirin of vascular and 
platelet prostaglandin synthesis in atherosclerotic patients. N.J. Med. 308:800-808, 1983 

Barany, F. Two codon insertion mutagenesis of plasmid genes using single-stranded hexameric oligonu- 
cleotides. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 80:4202-4206, 1985. 

Barany, F. Single-stranded hexameric linkers; a system for in-phase insertion mutagenesis and protein 
engineering. Gene 37:111-123, 1985. 

Becker, C. G. (with Hajjar, D. P., and Hefton, J. ML), Tobacco constituents are mitogenic for arterial 
smooth muscle cells. Am. J. Path. 120( l):l-5, 1985. 

Becker, C. G. (with Wagner, M„ Grady, R W., Liem, H., and Muller-Eberhard, U), Activation of factor XII 
dependent pathways in human plasma by hematin and protoporphyrin. Fed. Proc. 43(6): 1805, 
1984. 

Berns, K. I. (with Siegl, G., Bates, R C., Carter, B. J., Kelly, D. C, Kurstak, E., and Tattersall, P.), Charac- 
teristics and Taxonomy of Parvotnridae. Intervirol. 23:61-73, 1985. 

Berns, K. I. (with Grossman, Z., and Winocour, E.), Structure of Simian Virus 40/Adeno-Associated Virus 
recombinant genomes. J. Virol. 56:457-465, 1985. 

Bullough, P. G. (with Nakata, K.), The injury and repair of human articular cartilage: A morphological 
study of 192 cases of coxarthrosis. J. Rheumatol. 10(S9):72-73, 1983. 

Bullough, P. G. (with Jagannath, A. ), The morphology of the calcification front in articular cartilage. J. 
Bone Joint Surg. 65-B:72-78, 1983. 

Dickerman, R W. (with Scherer, W. F., Cupp, E. W. and Ordonez, J. V.), Ecologic observations of Vene- 
zuelan encephalitis virus vertebrates and isolation of Nepuyo and Patois viruses from sentinel 
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20 



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promastigotes: Parasite lysis and attachment to macrophages. J Immunol 132:1501-1055, 1984. 

Edclson, P. J (with Mosser, D. M ), The mouse macrophage receptor for C3bi (CR3 ) is a major mecha- 
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Hajjar, D P Altered cholesteryl ester cycle is associated with lipid accumulation in herpesvirus-infected 
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Hajjar, D. P Regulation of neutral cholesteryl esterase in arterial smooth muscle cells: stimulation by 

agonists of adenylate cyclase and cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase. Arch Biochcm. Biophys. 
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Holloman, W K. (with Kmiec, E. B., Angelides, K.J.), Left-handed DNA and the synaptic pairing reaction 
promoted by I'stilago Rec 1 protein. Cell 40:139-145, 1985. 

Holloman, W. K. (with Kmiec. E B. ), Homologous pairing of DNA molecules by Ustilago Rec 1 protein 
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Keithly, J. S. (with Giannini, S. H., Schettini M., Warburton, R. E., Cantor, C. R, and Van der Ploeg, L. H. 
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Keithly, J. S. (with Colomer-Gould, V., Galvao-Quintao, L., and Nogueira. N. ), A common major surface 
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Murray, H. W. (with Rubin. B. Y., Carriero, S. M., et al.), Human Mononuclear phagocyte antiprotozoal 
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Murray, H. W (with Hillman J J , Rubin. B. Y., et al.), Patients at risk for AIDS-related opportunistic- 
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O'Donncll, M. E. (with Komberg, A ), Dynamics of DNA polymerase 111 holoenzyme of Escherichia coli 
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22 



Field of Neurobiology and Behavior 



Faculty 



Harriet D. Baker 
Ira B. Black 
Dana C. Brooks 
Arthur J. L. Cooper 
Cheryl Dreyfus 
Daniel Gardner 
Michael S. Gazzaniga 
James G. Gibbs, Jr. 
Gary E. Gibson 
Bernice Grafstein 
Katherine A. Halmi 
D>rraine Iacovitti 
Costantino Iadecola 
Tong H. Joh 
Joseph E. LeDoux 
David E. Levy 



J. John Mann 
Hong M. Moon 
Michiko Okamoto 
Gavril W. Pasternak 
Virginia M. Pickel 
Fred Plum 
Donald J. Reis 
Walter F. Rikerjr 
David A. Rottenberg 
David A. Ruggiero 
Ixonard S. Schleifer 
Jeri A. Sechzer 
Gerard P. Smith 
Peter E. Stokes 
Gladys N. Teitelman 
Robert Young 



Research Activities 

Dr. Harriet Baker is interested in quantitative immunocytochemical analysis of 
enzyme expression. The role of olfactory receptor neurons in control of neuro- 
transmitter expression in the olfactory bulb with special reference to catecho- 
lamine and peptide neurons is a primary research focus. Strain and species differ- 
ences in neurotransmitter expression is another research interest. The techniques 
used in these studies include immunocytochemistry, neurochemistry and neuronal 
tracing techniques. 

Dr. Ira B. Black studies the molecular genetics underlying neuronal plasticity 
in the peripheral nervous system and the brain. A combination of in intK), tissue 
culture, molecular biological, biochemical and morphologic techniques are 
employed to explore plasticity, and its role in the function of the nervous system. 
Developmental as well as aging models are being studied. 

Dr. Dana C. Brooks is using signal averaging techniques to study the manner 
in which auditory information is processed as it passes through the first relay 
nucleus of the auditory system in the cat. The potential fields generated by the 
subdivisions of this nuclear complex are being mapped using an IBM XT and 
computer graphics programs 

Dr. Arthur J. L. Cooper is working in the area of 2-kcto acid biochemistry and 
pyridoxal phosphate enzymes. Another area of active research is the metabolism of 
amino acids and ammonia in the brain. For this purpose, molecules labeled with 
short-lived radioisotopes are synthesized and their distribution in brain is analyzed 
by positron emission tomography. Cerebral energy metabolism, with particular 
emphasis on the malatc-asparatc shuttle, and its disruption in various disease states 
is also being investigated. 



23 



Dr. Cheryl Dreyfus' research examines phenotypic development of specific 
neurons of the central nervous system and emphasizes definition of environmental 
factors which may influence brain cell development. This work has concentrated 
on ontogeny of noradrenergic neurons of the locus coeruleus, as well as dopami- 
nergic cells of the substantia nigra and peptidergic and cholinergic neurons of the 
striatum and nucleus basalis. 

Dr. Daniel Gardner studies how neurons use chemical synaptic transmission 
to communicate with one another. Neurons in ganglia of the mollusc Aplysia are 
probed by intracellular recording, voltage clamping, patch clamping, and 
computer-based analysis to yield principles of organization of cell networks. One 
project focuses on the particular kinetic properties of single transmitter-activated 
channels which are altered in order to determine duration, and therefore efficacy, 
of different postsynaptic currents. A second project asks how different synaptic 
currents function to coordinate the activity of neurons in a network. 

Dr. Michael S. Gazzaniga utilizes neuropsychological approaches to behavior 
in man to examine the effects of corpus commissurotomy ("split-brain" surgery) 
on cognition with reference to interhemispheric interaction. These neuropsycho- 
logical studies are carried out on patients who have had NMR (nuclear magnetic 
resonance) scans to determine the true extent of callosal separation. 

Dr. James Gifts' research focuses on the neurobiology of motivated behaviors, 
especially the neuroendocrine mechanisms controlling feeding behavior in animals 
and the pathophysiology of eating disorders in humans. 

Dr. Gary E. Gibson examines the relation of calcium, oxidative metabolism 
and neurotransmitters to altered mental function and cell death. These interactions 
are examined in animal models of conditions that alter mental function in man 
(aging, hypoxia, and thiamin deficiency) as well as in tissues from Alzheimer 
patients. In vivo neurotransmitter metabolism is related to behavior and to changes 
in vitro. Human studies include enzyme measurements on autopsied brain as well 
as studies of lymphocytes, red blood cells and cultured skin fibroblasts. 

Dr. Bernice Grafstein is concerned with problems of nerve regeneration and 
the response of nerve cells to injury. Techniques used include light and electron 
microscopy and radioactive isotope methods for analyzing the axonal transport of 
proteins and other cellular constituents. 

Dr. Katherine Halmfs current research on anorexia nervosa and bulimia 
nervosa includes long term follow-up studies, investigation of appetite and satiety 
mechanisms in eating disorder patients, assessing taste preferences, neurendocrine 
investigations and psychological assessments. 

Dr. Lorraine Iacovittts current research activities are directed toward the 
study of the developing nervous system. She is currently examining the principles 
which govern phenotypic expression of particular neurotransmitters in neurons of 
the peripheral and central nervous system. 

Dr. Constantino ladecola's primary interest is the regulation of cerebral circu- 
lation, metabolism and blood-barrier permeability, role of neural pathways and 
reaction to injury. 

Dr. Tong H.Joh's main interest is to study the biochemistry and molecular 
genetics of neurotransmitter enzymes and receptors, and neurospecific protein. 
Multidisciplinary studies with molecular biologists, developmental biologists, and 
histochemists include the structural analyses of genes coding for neurotransmitter 



24 



enzymes, gene regulation at transcriptional level, quantitative analysis of mRNAs, 
and gene expression during development and aging. 

Dr. Joseph LeDoiix studies the neural pathways mediating emotional informa- 
tion processing. Classical conditioning techniques arc used to endow sensory 
stimuli with emotional significance. Through the use of anatomical tracing, lesion, 
the electrophysiological recording techniques, the contrihution of various brain 
areas and their fiber connections to the coding of stimulus meaning is analyzed. 

Dr. Daiid E. Leiy is developing techniques for predicting which comatose 
patients will recover and which will not. These efforts include utilization of posi- 
tron emission tomographic scanning to study unconscious patients. He collects 
detailed clinical information on patients with stroke so that methods for predicting 
recovery from stroke can be developed as they have been for coma. Development 
of an easily-utilized data entry and analysis system designed to accept serial clinical 
data on patients with a variety of neurological illnesses is an integral part of these 
efforts. In the coming year, clinical trials of promising therapeutic agents for acute 
stroke will probably be initiated as well. 

Dr. John Mann's research focuses on aminergic receptor regulation and trans- 
mission abnormalities in the central nervous system and peripheral tissues. Human 
postmortem brain tissue, peripheral blood cells with beta adrenergic and seroto- 
nergic receptor complexes and related animal models are utilized to study the 
normal and diseased state. The laboratory has a particular interest in the neuro- 
chemical correlates of depressive and anxiety disorders, suicidal behavior and the 
action of antidepressants. 

Dr. Hong Mo Moon is currently investigating the molecular biology of human 
chromosome 21 (q221 and q222). 

Dr. Michiko Okamoto investigates pharmacologic and neuropharmacology 
bases of the tolerance and physical dependence and withdrawal caused by general 
CNS depressants. Barbiturates, alcohol and benzodiazepines are the prototypes for 
the study. A quantitative methodology for the pharmacologic characterization of 
tolerance and physical dependence on these CNS depressants in animal models, 
underlying neuronal mechanisms for these events, sleep disorders produced by 
these drugs are the primary interest. The approach to research is multidisciplinary 
involving a wide range of laboratory techniques including modern chromatogra- 
phic methods for determination of drugs and neurochemical transmitter 
substances and electrophysiologic techniques for monitoring central and periph- 
eral neuronal responses. 

Dr. Gairil W. Pasternak is studying the molecular pharmacology of centrally 
active analgesics. Work in the laboratory currently is focused upon the biochemical 
and pharmacological characterization of the various opiate receptor subtypes. One 
goal of the laboratory includes examining membrane-bound and affinity-purified 
receptors and their potential coupling with effector systems. Another is the corre- 
lation of the various subtypes with specific opiate actions in vivo. Finally, the 
anatomical localization of these sites within the central nervous system is studied 
with quantitative autoradiography Many of these approaches have utilized a series 
of opiate affinity labels developed within the laboratory 

Dr. Virginia M. Pickel studies ultrastructural synaptic interactions between 
monoaminergic and peptidergic neurons in brain. Present research is directed 
toward a more complete understanding of the synaptic circuitry between neurons 



25 



containing specific transmitters in the basal ganglia and in brainstem nuclei asso- 
ciated with central cardiovascular regulation. Specific interactions between central 
monoaminergic and peptidergic neurons are being examined in the adult and 
developing rat brain using immunocytochemical markers and electron microscopy. 
The peptides of current interest include opioids, substance P, neurotensin, and 
angiotensin. 

Dr. Fred Plum, Chairman of the Department of Neurology, focuses his research 
efforts on cerebral metabolism in disease states and their indentification of cellular- 
subcellular mechanisms responsible for ischemic cell death. 

Dr. Donald J. Rets' research interests are the central neural and neurochemical 
mechanisms governing control of the autonomic nervous system, cerebral blood 
flow and metabolism. His research also includes mechanisms governing the death 
of brain neurons in response to aging and injury. 

Dr. Walter F. Rikefs studies on the neuropharmacology of nerve endings 
center on the mechanisms of drug action on neurons, neuronal processes and 
synaptic systems in both the peripheral and central nervous system. Current work 
is concerned with the pharmacologic and functional characterization of motor 
nerve terminals, and with the testing of the hypothesis that neuromuscular 
blocking, anticurare, and anti-myasthenic drugs act prejunctionally as well as post- 
junctional^, by slowing recovery from depolarization, especially in motor nerve 
endings in tonic nerve-muscle systems. 

Dr. David A. Rottenberg investigates neurological imaging with positron emis- 
sion tomography (PET) and transmission computerized tomography (CT). PET 
studies have focused on the use of 82 Rb to measure blood-to-brain and blood-to- 
tumor transport rate constants and tissue plasma water volumes. Elucidating the 
acute effects of whole-brain radiation therapy and corticosteroids on these trans- 
port systems is another goal. Other studies employing 18 F-fluorodeoxyglycose 
(FDG) are designed to evaluate the toxicity of combined cranial irradiation and 
intrathecal methotrexate in long-term survivors of childhood acute leukemia. He 
also maintains a laboratory devoted to quantitative autoradiography. 

Dr. D. A. Ruggiero's interests include: anatomical and neurochemical pathways 
in brain which maintain normal resting levels of arterial blood pressure; neural 
substrates of the baroreceptor reflex; pathways underlying the cerebellar regula- 
tion of autonomic activities and cerebral blood flow; areas of autonomic represen- 
tation in cerebral cortex and brainstem reticular formation; adrenaline synthesizing 
neurons and their pathways in the central nervous system. 

Dr.JeriA. Sechzefs research interests include early development, behavioral 
toxicology, sensory receptors, and neural mechanisms of memory and learning. Her 
current activities include: ( 1 ) The effect of lithium chloride on maternal behavior 
and early development; (2) Olfactory and gustatory thresholds in depression; (3) 
Bioethical issues concerning the use of animals in research and education. 

Dr. Gerard P. Smith is interested in the behavior neuroscience of eating and its 
disorders. Current experiments include the measurement of central monoamines 
during eating behavior, the role of gut peptides such as cholecystokinin, to stop 
eating, animal models of eating disorders using genetic and sham feeding rats, and 
the experimental analysis of taste and eating in human patients with various types 
of eating disorders. 



26 



Dr. Peter E. Stokes is interested in neuroendocrine function in affective 
disease. Measurements of hvpothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HYPAC) function 
at various levels of this axis are obtained in patients with depression vs healthy 
normal controls and patients with other psychiatric diagnoses. Current specific 
interests include: response of the HYPAC system to administration of CRF, ACTH, 
dexamethasone and adrenocortical steroid blockers, pharmacokinetics of dexa- 
methasone, measurement of multiple adrenal steroids, investigation of the relation- 
ship between HYPAC function and biogenic amine and sympathetic nervous system 
activity. A second area of interest is the investigation of lithium pharmacokinetics 
and the pharmacology-toxicology of lithium in animals and humans. 

Dr. Gladys Teitelmati's research interests include the cellular events control- 
ling the expression of neurospecific proteins, such as neurotransmitter biosyn- 
thetic enzymes in autonomic ganglia of avian and mammalian embryos. Another 
area of her active research revolves around mechanisms involved in the differentia- 
tion of the endocrine cells of pancreatic islets from cells transiently expressing 
neurospecific enzymes. The techniques used in these studies include tissue culture, 
biochemistry' and immunocytochemistry. 

Dr. Robert Young's interest is in approaching relationships between brain 
neurotransmitter function and behaviors by studying major affective illness devel- 
oping in late life. Indices of brain catecholaminergic function and behaviors are 
studied in individuals when symptomatic and after treatment. The laboratory 
measures applied include neurotransmitter metabolite excretion, neuroendocrine 
tests, brain imaging, and psychotropic drug concentrations. 

Recent Publications 

Baker, H. (with Kawano, T., Albert, V. R, Joh, T. H., Reis, D. J. and Margolis, F L ), Olfactory bulb 

dopamine neurons survive deafferentation induced loss of tyrosine hydroxylase. Neuroscience 
11:605-616, 1984. 

Black, L B. (with Adler. J E„ Dreyfus, C. F Jonakait, G. M., Katz, D. M., LaGamma, E. F., and Markcy, K 
M.), Neurotransmitter plasticity at the molecular level. Science 225: 1 266- 1 270, 1984. 

Cooper, A. J. L (with Fitzpatrick, S M . and Duffy, T. E. ), Use of B-methylenc D, 1. aspartate to assess the 
role of aspartate aminotransferase in cerebral oxidative metabolism. J. Ncurochem. 4(5): 1370- 
1383, 1983. 

Cooper, A. J. L (with Mora, S. M.. Cruz, N .F.. and Gelbard, A. S. ), Cerebral ammonia metabolism in 
hypcrammonemic rats. J. Neurochem. 44: 1716-1723. 1985. 

Dreyfus, C. F. (with Black. I B . Adler, J. E, Jonakait, G. M., Katz, D. M . LaGamma, E. F., and Markcy, K. 
M ), Neurotransmitter plasticity at the molecular level Science 225:1266-1270, 1984. 

Gardner. D (with Ruff. R L, and White, R 1. ), Choline acts as agonist and blocker for .tylysia choli- 
nergic synapses. J. Neurophysiol 51 1-15, 1984. 

Gardner, D (with White, R. I- ). Physostigminc prolongs the elementary events underlying decay of 
inhibitory postsynaptic currents in Aplysia. ) Ncurosci. 3:2607-261 3i 1983 

Gazzaniga. M. S (with Holtzman, J D , Deck, M , and Ice. B. C. P.), NMR assessment of human callosal 
surgery with neuropsychological correlates. Neurology, in press. 

Gazzaniga. M S . Advances in cognitive ncuroscicnccs: I"he problem of information storage in the human 
brain. In: Seurobiology of Learning atui Memory; Lynch, G.. McGaugh. J. L, and W einberger, N. 
M.. eds . The Guilford Press, New York, pp ^8 88, 1984. 



Gibbs, J. (with Smith, G. P.), The neuroendocrinology of postprandial satiety. In: Frontiers in Neuroen- 
docrinology, Vol. 8, Martini, L. and Ganong, W. F., eds., Raven Press, New York, pp. 223-245, 
1984. 

Gibbs, J., Effect of bombesin on feeding behavior. Life Sci. 37:147-153, 1985. 

Gibson, G. E. (with Peterson, C. ), Amelioration of age-related deficit in acetylcholine release and 
behavior with 3,4-diaminopyridine. In: Aging of the Brain, Samuel, D., Algeri, S., Gershon, S., 
Grimm, V., and Toffano, G, eds., Raven Press, New York, pp. 337-348, 1983- 

Gibson, G. E. (with Peterson, C), Synaptosomal calcium metabolism during hypoxia and 3,4- 
diaminopyridine treatment. J. Neurochem. 42:248-253, 1984. 

Grafstein, B. (with Burmeister, D. W.), Removal of optic tectum prolongs the cell body reaction of 
axotomy in goldfish retinal ganglion cells. Brain Res. 327:45-51, 1985. 

Grafstein, B. (with Perry, G. W. and Burmeister, D. W.), Changes in protein content of goldfish optic 
nerve during degeneration and regeneration. J. Neurochem. 44:1 142-1 151, 1985. 

Halmi, K A., Somatic and behavioral treatment of anorexia nervosa and bulimia. In: Karger Biobebav- 
ioral Medicine Series, Vol. 4, Powers and Fernandex, eds., Karger/Basel, Switzerland, pp.48-62, 
1984. 

Halmi, K A., Anorexia nervosa. In: Comprehensive Textbook of Psychiatry, 4th edition, Vol. 2, Kaplan, 
H. I. and Sadock, B. J., eds., Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore/London, pp. 1 143-1 148, 1984. 

Iacovitti, L. (with Joh, T. H., Albert, V. R., Reis, D. J., and Teitelman, G), Partial expression of catechola- 
minergic traits in cholinergic chick ciliary ganglion: studies in vivo and in vitro. Dev. Biol., in 
press. 

Iadecola, C. (with Nakai, M., Mraovitch, S., Ruiggiero, D. A, Tucker, L. W., and Reis, D. J.), Global 

increase in cerebral metabolism and blood flow produced by focal electrical stimulation of dorsal 
medullary reticular formation in rat. Brain Res. 272:101-1 14, 1983. 

Iadecola, C. (with Mravotch, S., Meeley, M. P., and Reis, D. J. ), Lesions of the basal forebrain in rat selec- 
tively impair the cortical vasodilation elicited from cerebellar fastigial nucleus. Brain Res. 279:41- 
52, 1983. 

Joh, T. H. (with Baetge, E. E., Moon, H. M., Kaplan, B. B., Park, D. H., and Reis, D. J.), Identification of 
clones containing DNA complementary to phenylethanolamine N- methyltransferase mRNA 
Neurochem. Intl. 5(5):6l 1-617, 1983. 

Joh, T. H. (with Baetge, E. E., Ross, M. E., and Reis, D. J.), Evidence for the existence of homologous 
gene coding regions for the catecholamine biosynthetic enzymes. In: Cold Spring Harbor 
Symposia on Quantitative Biology, Vol. 48, Watson, J. D. and McKay, R., eds. Cold Spring Harbor 
Laboratory, pp. 327-335, 1983- 

Levy, D. E. (with Caronna, J. J., Singer, B. H., Lapinski, R. H., Frydman, H., and Plum, F.), Predicting 
outcome from hypoxic-ischemic coma. J. Amer. Med. Assoc. 253:1420-1426, 1985. 

Mann, J. J. (with Petito, C, McBride, P. A., Stanley, M., Chin, J., and Philogue, A. ), Age and gender effects 
upon amine receptors and monoamine oxidase in postmortem human brain. In: Clinical and 
Pharmacological Studies in Psychiatric Disorders, Burrows, G. D. and Norman, T. R., eds., Jon 
Libbey, London, 1984. 

Mann, J. J. (with Stanley, M.), Serotonin-2 binding sites are increased in the frontal cortex of suicide 
victims. Lancet L214-216, 1983. 

Okamoto, M. (with Hinman, D. J.), Sleep patterns in cats during chronic low-dose barbiturate treatment 
and withdrawal. Sleep 7:69-76, 1984. 

Okamoto, M., Barbiturate tolerance and physical dependence: Contribution of pharmacological factors. 
In: Mechanisms of Tolerance and Dependence. NIDA Research Monograph Series 54, pp. 333- 
347, 1985. 

Pickel, V. M. (with BouyerJ. J., Park, D. H., and Joh, T. H), Chemical and structural analysis of the rela- 
tion between cortical inputs and tyrosine hydroxylase-containing terminals in rat neostriatum. 
Brain Res. 302:267-275, 1984. 

Pickel, V. M. (with Joh, T. H., Chan, J., and Beaudet, A.), Serotoninergic terminals: infrastructure and 
synaptic interaction with catecholamine-containing neurons in the medial nuclei of the solitary 
tracts. J. Comp. Neurol. 225:291-301, 1984. 



28 



Reis, I) J., Central neural control of cerebral circulation and metabolism. In: Neuro t ransmitters and tbe 
Cerebral Circulation, Vol 2, McKenzie, E. T , Scytaz, J ., and Bes, A., eds., Raven Press, New York, 
pp. 91119, 1984. 

Reis, I). J., ITie brain and hypertension: reflections on 35 years of enquiry into the neurobiology of the 
circulation. Circulation 70 (suppl III): 111 -31-111-45, 1984. 

Rikcr. Vi\ F, Jr. (with Sprouse, J. S. and Baker. T. ), Pharmacologii. excitability of rat motor nerve 

endings: the effect of adrenalectomy on neostigmine induced fasciculations J Pharmacol. Exp. 
Iher. 2.35:864-872, 1985 

Kikcr, W. F., Jr. (with Hartman, G. S. and Fiamengo, S. A. ), Succinylcholine: Mechanism of fasciculations 
and their prevention by d-tubocurarine or diphenylhydantoin. Anesthesiology, 1986, in press. 

Rottenberg. 1) A , (with Jarden, J O., Dhawan, V , Poltorak, A., Posner, J. B ), Positron emission tomogra 
phic measurement of blood-to-brain and blood-to-tumor transport of H -Rh: the effect of dexa- 
mcthasone and whole-brain radiation therapy. Ann. Neurol. 18:636-646, 1985. 

Rottenberg, D. A. (with Ginos, J. Z, Kearfott, K. J , Junck, L, Dhawan, V., and Jarden, J O. ), In vivo 
mexsurement of brain tumor pH using ["C)DMO and positron emission tomography. Ann. 
Neurol. 17:70-79, 1985. 

Ruggiero, I) A (with Ross. C. A . Anwar, M., Park, D EL, Job, T. ft, and Reis, D.J. ), Distribution of 

neurons containing phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase in medulla and hypothalamus of rat. 
J. Comp. Neurol., in press. 

Ruggiero. D. A. (with Granata, A R., Park, D. H . Joh, T. H., and Reis, D. J. ), Brainstem area with CI 
epinephrine neurons mediates baroreflex vasodepressor responses. Am. J. Physiol. 248:H547- 
H567, 1985. 

Scch/cr. J. A. (with Zola, J. C, Sieber, J E., and Griffin, A ), Animal experimentation: Issues for the 

1980s. In: Science, Technology and Human Values, Vol. 9. Issue 2. John Wiley and Sons, pp. 40- 
50. 1984. 

Sechzer. J A. (with Folstein, S , Gcigcr. E. H . Mervis. R. F, and Meehan, S. M), Development of matura- 
tion of postural reflexes in normal kittens. Exper. Neurol. 86:493-505, 1984. 

Smith. G P., Gut hormone hypothesis of postprandial satiety In: Eating and Its Disorders, Stunkard. A. J. 
and Stellar, E., eds. Raven Press, New York, pp. 67-75, 1984. 

Smith, G. P (with Gibbs. J ). The neurocndocrinology of postprandial satiety. In: Frontiers of Neuroen- 
docrinology. Vol. 8., Martini, L and Ganong, V. F., eds Raven Press, New York, pp. 223-245, 
1984 

Stokes, P. E. (with Bossom.J., Natelson, B. H., and Levin, B. E. ), Ultradian rhythms in cognitive functions 
and their relationship to visceral processes. Physiol. Beha\ 31 119-124, 1 983 

Stokes, P. E. (with Stoll, P. M.. Koslow, S. H„ Maas, J. W , Davis, J. M., Swann, A. C, and Robins, E ), 

Pretreatment DST and hvpothalamic-pituitary-adrcnocortical function in depressed patients and 
comparison groups Arch Gen. Psychiatry 4 1:257-267. 1984. 

Teitelman. G. (with Joh, T. H., Grayson, I... Park. D. H., Reis, D.J., and lacovitti, I. ), Cholingeric neurons 
of the chick ciliary ganglia expre ss adrenergic traits in vit/O and in vitro. J. Neurosci. 5( 1 ):29-30, 
19HS 

Young. R. C (with Alexopoulos. G S., Shamoian, C. A., Manley. M W., Dhar. A. K., and Kurt. H ). Plxsma 
10 hvdroxvnortriptvline in elderly depressed patients Clin Pharmacol Ther 35(4 ):540-544, 
1984 

Young. R C (with Alexopoulos. G S and Shamoian, C. A. ), Dissociation of motor responses from mood 
and cognition in a Parkinsonian patient treated with ECT Biol Psychiat 20 566 569. 1985 



29 



Field of Pharmacology 

Faculty 



Walter W. Y. Chan 
Diane F. Felsen 



Michiko Okamoto 
Gavril W. Pasternak 
Marcus M. Reidenberg 
Arlene B. Rifkind 
Hazel H. Szeto 



Owen W. Griffith 
Charles E. Inturrisi 
Roberto Levi 



The members of the Field of Phamacology, Cornell University Medical College Divi- 
sion, jointly offer the Interdivisional Program in Pharmacology with members of the 
Unit of Developmental Therapy and Clinical Investigation, Sloan-Kettering Division. 
Areas of training include: analgesic and opioid pharmacology; biochemical pharma- 
cology and toxicology; cancer chemotherapy; cariovascular pharmacology; clinical 
pharmacology; endocrine and peptide pharmacology; neuropharmacology; 
oncology-pharmacology; perinatal pharmacology and renal pharmacology. 

Faculty, research activities, and publications relating to this joint training 
program are presented under Interdivisional Program in Pharmacology (p. 55). 
Program requirements and offerings are described also under Interdivisional 
Programs (p. 89). 



Field of Physiology and Biophysics 



'Members of the Field of Pharmacology. For representative bibliography, see Interdivisional Program in Pharmacology. 



Faculty 



Olaf S. Andersen 

Ellen Townes-Anderson 

Rodney E. Bigler 

Walter W. Y. Chan* 

Colin Fell 

Daniel Gardner 

Marvin C. Gershengorn 

Bernice Grafstein 

Roger L. Greif (Emeritus) 

Chin OK Lee 

Roberto Levi* 



Chiann-Tso Lin 
Martin Lipkin 
Thomas M. Maack 
Daniel Nachshen 
Lawrence Palmer 
Thomas G Pickering 
Enrique M. Rabellino 
Barbara Rayson 
John L. Stephenson 
Bernd W. Urban 
Allan M. Weinstein 
Erich E. Windhager 



30 



Research Activities 



Dr. Erich Windbagefs studies arc aimed at the elucidation of the mechanisms of 
ion and water transport hy renal epithelial cells. The techniques used in Dr. Wind- 
hager's laboratory include: isolated perfused renal tubule segments, intracellular 
measurement of ions by ion selective electrodes, electrophysiological techniques, 
isolated membrane techniques and renal micropuncture methods. Current work 
centers on the role of cytosolic calcium ions as regulators of ion and water trans- 
port in proximal tubules and collecting ducts of the kidney. Collaborating with Dr. 
Windhager are Drs. Heinz, Frindt, Lin and Johnson. 

Dr. Grafstein investigates nerve regeneration and transport of material in 
nerve axons. She is presently studying regeneration of goldfish optic nerve. Some of 
the conclusions reached in recent work are: drugs that disrupt microtubules 
produce metabolic effects in axons which resemble those produced by axotomy; 
increased synthesis of most transported proteins occurs during regncration; 
removal of a synaptic target delays cell recovery during regeneration. Dr. Graf- 
stein's laboratory uses the following techniques, among others: isotope tracer 
studies, electronmicroscopy, high resolution autoradiography, and 2-dimensional 
gel electrophoresis. 

Dr. Maack's studies are directed at the elucidation of the quantitative aspects 
and mechanisms of renal processing and actions of circulating proteins and 
peptide-hormones. The main findings in this regard are that the uptake of proteins 
by proximal tubular cells is a high capacity-low affinity selective endocytic trans- 
port process. Disposal of absorbed protein is also a selective process which 
depends on an appropriate acid pH of lysosomes. The renal processing of low 
molecular weight proteins and peptide hormones accounts for a major fraction of 
the plasma turnover of these substances. The results of these studies permitted a 
better understanding of the pathophysiology of proteinurias and hormonal disturb- 
ances in renal diseases. More recent studies deal with the renal processing and 
actions of atrial natriuretic factor, a novel hormone secreted by the heart which 
decreases blood pressure, regulates kidney function and increases salt excretion. 
The techniques used in Dr. Maack's laboratry include isolated perfused rat kidney, 
isolated tubule segments, cell culture, receptor-hormone interactions and general 
biochemical and physiological techniques. 

Dr. Andersen is interested in the mechanisms by which ions cross membranes. 
His studies entail analysis of permeability characteristics of lipid bilayers, with 
emphasis on the physical and chemical properties of proteins which serve as 
channel formers. The emphasis of the present work is on structure-function studies 
of membrane channels using site-specific amino acid substitutions, and on covalent 
modification of using group specific reagents. Techniques used in Dr. Andersen's 
laboratory include: single channel analysis, electrophysiological measurements, 
pin mo c hemical analysis, and computer simulations. 

iyr. Stephenson is interested in theoretical aspects of transport in biological 
systems. Much of his recent research centers on transport of water and electrolytes 
in epithelia and in the kidney. One group of current studies focuses on the relation 
of medullary concentration gradients and the osmolality of final urine in the 
mammalian kidney to tubular and vascular permeabilities, flows, and architecture. 



$1 



A second project is to develop a mathematical model of electrolyte transport in the 
whole kidney, which includes electrolytes (Na, K, CI, HCO3, H2PO4, H), glucose, 
urea, protein, osmotic forces, hydrostatic pressure, and electrical potential. 
Approaches to these problems include both computer simulation and the develop- 
ment and theoretical analysis of mathematical models. 

Dr. Gershengorn studies the molecular mechanisms involved in signal trans- 
duction by hormones, neurotransmitters and growth factors that interact with 
receptors on the surface of their target cells. In particular, he is studying the 
biochemical events that mediate the stimulation by thyrotropin-releasing hormone 
(TRH) of secretion of hormones from the anterior pituitary gland. This mechanism 
involves the metabolism of an important class of cell phospholipids, the phosphoi- 
onositides, to generate two second messengers, inositol triphosphate and 1,2- 
diacylglycerol, and changes in cellular calcium homeostasis. This mechanism is a 
general one that is used by many extracellular signal molecules acting in many 
different cell types. 

Dr. Pickerings main area of research is concerned with development of 
improved methods for the noninvasive measurement of blood pressure. First, he is 
using ambulatory monitoring techniques to learn more about the causes of blood 
pressure variability in normal and hypertensive subjects. This work has shown that 
most of the observed circadian rhythm of blood pressure can be accounted for by 
changes of activity. Second, he is analyzing the causes and origins of Korotkoff 
sounds with a view to the development of a new technique for blood pressure 
measurement. 

Dr. Fell studies the reactivity to drugs and other stimuli of microvessels in rat 
and rabbit ears and rat mesentery, using the technique of ultravital microscopy. 

Dr. Gardner's laboratory studies how neurons use chemical synaptic transmis- 
sion to communicate with one another. He is concerned with the biophysics of 
synaptic transmission, as well as the properties of neuronal networks. Recent 
discoveries were: 1 ) choline activates inhibitory acetylcholine receptors of Aplysia 
buccal ganglia, and 2) dual-function excitatory-inhibitory synapses co-ordinate the 
two phases of their postsynaptic potentials by a voltage-dependent change in dura- 
tion. Techniques used by Dr. Gardner include electrophysiological voltage- and 
patch-clamping, computer data acquisition and analysis, and artificial intelligence 
methods for neuronal modelling. 

Dr. Lee investigates ionic mechanisms underlying changes in contractile force 
of cardiac muscle and ion transport across cardiac cell membrane. He recently 
demonstrated that cardiac glycosides increase cardiac muscle contractility by 
changing intracellular activities of sodium and calcium ions. Techniques used in 
Dr. Lee's laboratory include: isolated cardiac Purkinje fibers and intracellular 
recordings with ion selective electrodes (Na, H and Ca). 

Dr. Palmer's research focuses on the mechanism of transepithelial Na reab- 
sorption by tight epithelia, and the control of this process by hormones and other 
factors. The nature of the transport system facilitating sodium movement across the 
apical membrane of epithelial cells is being elucidated using the toad urinary 
bladder and the mammalian cortical collecting tubule as a model epithelia. Tech- 
niques used in Dr. Palmer's laboratory include: patch-clamping, current-voltage 
analysis, and flux ratio analysis. 



32 



Dr. RabeUino's research interests are primarily related to the study of the 
several cellular and molecular processes involved during the acquisition of func- 
tional competence by differentiating blood cells. In past studies he has investigated 
in the lymphoid, myeloid and megakaryocyte series, the phenotypic evolution of 
developing marrow cells using monoclonal antibody technology and flow 
cytometry. Currently, studies are in progress to investigate protein synthesis, cell 
DNA distribution and synthesis, as well as RNA accumulation in developing 
megakaryocytes. Studies are also in progress to assess expression and changes of 
specific protein genes throughout megakaryocytopoicsis using cDNA probes for 
different alpha granule proteins. 

Dr. Nacbsben's laboratory studies fundamental properties of presynaptic nerve 
terminals. Since calcium entry into the nerve terminal triggers the release of neuro- 
transmitter substances, Dr. Nachshen is studying the detail of this process and how 
internal pH and intracellular calcium are related to neurosecretion. Techniques 
used in Dr. Nachshen's laboratory include: use of pinched-off nerve endings (synap- 
tosomes), measurements of intracellular calcium with optical indicator substances. 

Dr. Rayson's research activities center on the investigation of the regulation of 
Na-K/ATPase ( Na pump ) in kidney cells. Recent discoveries include the finding 
that intracellular Na levels regulate the number of active Na-K/ATPase enzyme sites 
in outer medullary tubular segments of the kidney. Current research is directed at 
the analysis of the cellular mechanisms involved. Techniques used in Dr. Rayson's 
laboratory include: superfusion of tubular segments of the kidney, protein purifica- 
tion, pulse-chase and in vitro translation experiments. 

Dr. Urban studies the molecular actions of general anesthetics on membrane 
ion channels. He is investigating the mechanisms by which anesthetics change 
sodium and potassium currents in nerves (squid giant axon) and which effects 
anesthetics have on single sodium and gramicidin A channels (in lipid bilayer 
systems). Techniques used in Dr. Urban's laboratory include: voltage-clamp, elec- 
trophysiological techniques and lipid bilayers. 

Dr. Weinstein is interested in the theory of solute and water transport across 
epithelia and developing a mathematical model of proximal tubular function using 
computer techniques. 

Recent Publications 

Andersen, O S., Green. W N., and Urban. B W., Ion conduction through sodium channels in planar lipid 
bilayers In: Reconstitution of Ion Channels, ed. C. Miller. Plenum, New York. pp. 385-404, 1986. 

Andersen, O. S. (with Russell, E. W. B., Weiss, L B., Navetta, F. L, and Koeppc, 0, R. E ), Single channel 
studies on linear gramicidins with altered amino acid side chains. Effects of altering the bulk and 
polarity of the side chain at position 1 in gramicidin A Biophys. J 673-686, 1986 

Frindt. G., and Vi indhager, F. EL, Role of cytosolic calcium in renal tubular transport Nephrology. Proc. 
lXth Intl. Congr Nephrology Ed. Roscoc R. Robinson Springer Vcrlag, New York, pp 51-56, 
198-1 

Frindt. G. (with Palmer, L G.), Amiloride sensitive Na channels from the apical membrane of the rat 
cortical collecting tubule Physiological Sciences. Proc Natl Acad. Sc. USA. Vol. 83. 2767-2770, 
1986 



33 



Gardner, D., Ruff, R L., and White, R L., Choline acts as agonist and blocker for Aplysia cholinergic 
synapses. J. Neurophysiol. 51:1-15, 1984. 

Gardner, D., Voltage-dependence of synaptic time course reduces excitation at a diphasic synapse. Brain 
Research 306:365-369, 1984. 

Gershengorn, M. C. (with Brenner-Gati, L ), Effects of thyrotropin-releasing hormone on phosphoionosi- 
tides and cytoplasmic free calcium in thyrotropic pituitary cells. Endocrinology 1 18:163-169, 
1986. 

Gershengorn, M. C. (with Straub, R C), Thyrotropin-releasing hormone and GTP activate inositol 

triphosphate formation in membranes isolated from rat pituitary cells. J. Biol. Chem. 261:2712- 
2717, 1986. 

Grafstein, B., and Burmeister, D. W., Removal of optic tectum prolongs the cell body reaction to 
axotomy in goldfish retinal ganglion cells. Brain Res. 327:45-51, 1985. 

Grafstein, B., Perry, G. W., and Burmeister, D. W., Changes in protein content of goldfish optic nerve 
during degeneration and regeneration. J. Neurochem. 44:1 142-1 151, 1985. 

Lee, C. O., 200 years of digitalis: The emerging central role of the sodium ion in the control of cardiac 
force. Am. J. Physiol. 249:C367-C378, 1985. 

Lee, C. O., Abete, P., Pecker, M., Sonn, J. K, and Vassalle, M., Strophanthidin inotropy: Role of intracel- 
lular sodium ion activity and sodium-calcium exchange. J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol. 17:1043-1053, 
1985. 

Lin, J. T., Schwarc, K, and Stroh, A, Chromatofocusing and centrifugal reconstitution as tools for the 
separation and characterization of the Na*-cotransport system of the brush border membrane. 
Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 774:254-260, 1984. 

Lin, J. T, Schwarc, K, Kinne, R, and Jung, C. Y., Structural state of the NaVD-glucose cotransport in calf 
kidney brush border membranes. Target size analysis of Na*-dependent phlorizin binding and 
Na + -dependent D-glucose transport. Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 777:201-208, 1984. 

Maack, T., and Wall, D. A, Endocytic uptake, transport, and catabolism of proteins by epithelial cells. 
Editorial Review. Am. J. Physiol. 248(Cell Physiol. 17):C12-C20, 1985. 

Maack, T., Camargo, M. J. F., Kleinert, H. D., Laragh, J. H., and Atlas, S. A, Atrial natriuretic factor: Struc- 
tural and functional properties. Editorial Review. Kidney Internat. 27:607-615, 1985. 

Nachshen, D. A, The early time course of potassium - stimulated calcium uptake in presynaptic nerve 
terminals isolated from rat brain. J. Physiol. 361:251-268, 1985. 

Nachshen, D. A., Regulation of cytosolic calcium concentration in presynaptic nerve endings isolated 
from rat brain. J. Physiol. 363, 1985. 

Palmer, L. G., Interactions of amiloride and other blocking cations with apical Na channels in the toad 
urinary bladder. J. Membrane Biol. 87:191-199, 1985. 

Palmer, L. G., and Frindt, G., Amiloride-sensitive Na channels from the apical membrane of the rat 
cortical collecting tubule. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 83:2767-2770, 1986. 

Pickering, T. G., Harshfield, G. A, Kleinert, H. D., Denby, L. D., Clark, L., Pregibon, D.Jason, M., Kleiner, 
B., Borer, J. S., and Laragh, J. H., Left ventricular hypertrophy in patients with hypertension: 
Importance of blood pressure response to regularly recurring stress. Circulation 68, No. 3:470- 
476, 1983. 

Pickering, T. G., Harshfield, G. A, Devereux, R B., and Laragh, J. H., What is the role of ambulatory blood 
pressure monitoring in the management of hypertensive patients? Hypertension Vol. 7, No. 2:171- 
177, 1985. 

Rabellino, E. M., Levene, R B., Leung, L. L. K, and Nachman, R L, Human megakaryocytes II Expression 
of platelet proteins in early immature megakaryocytes. J. Exp. Med. 154:88-100, 1981. 

Rabellino, E. M., Levene, R B., Daniel Lamaziere, J-M, Broxmeyer, H. E., and Lu, L., Human megakaryo- 
cytes V. Changes in the phenotypic profile of differentiating megakaryocytes. J. Exp. Med. 
161:457-474, 1985. 

Rayson, B. M., and Gupta, R K, 23 Na NMR studies of rat outer medullary kidney tubules. J. Biol. Chem. 

260:7276-7280, 1985. 



34 



Ravson. B M . and Gupta, R. K.. Stcriods, intracellular sodium levels, and Na* K* ATPa.sc regulation. J 
Biol. Chem. 260: 12740- 12743, 1985. 

Sackin. H . and Boulpacp. E. L, R h eoge nk transpon in the renal proximal tubule J (ien. Physiol. 82:819 
851, 1983. 

Sackin. H , and Boron. *w I . Mcasurcnu tit of intracellular ionic composition and activities in renal 
tubules Ann Rev Physiol 45:483-496, 1983 

Stephenson, J L (with Tewarson, R. P, Garcia, M , and Zhang, Y ), On the solution of equations for 
renal counterflow models Comput Biol Med. 15:287-295, 1985. 

Stephenson. J. L (with Kncppcr, M. A.), Urinary concentrating and diluting processes. In: Physiology of 
Membrane I Hsonlers, ed T, Andreoli.J Hoffman, D. Fanestil, and S. Schult/. Plenum Publishing, 
chapter 39, 713-726, 1986. 

I rban, B \X (with Haydon, D. A., Elliott, J. R., and Hendry. B M. ), Ihe action of non-ionic anesthetic 
substances on voltage gated ion conductances in squid giant axons. In: MolecttLir and Cellular 
Mechanisms of Anesthetics, ed S H Roth, and K. W. Miller. Plenum Press, New York, 167-277, 
1986 

I'rban, B >X (with Haydon, D. A ), The action of hydrophobic, polar, and some inhalation anesthetic 
substances on the potassium current of the squid giant axon. J. Physiol. 373 31 1-327, 1986. 

Vt einstein. A. M., A mathematical model of the rat proximal tubule Am J Physiol. 250:F86O-873, 1986 

Vt cinstein, A. M„ Osmotic diuresis in a mathematical model of the rat proximal tubule Am J Physiol. 
250F874-F884, 1986. 

Vt indhager, E E . Uirenzen, M , and Lee, C. O., Cytosolic Ca** and Na' activities in perfused proximal 
tubules of Necturus kidney. Am. J. Physiol. 246:F93-F102. 1984. 

VC indhager. E. E. (with Taylor, A.), Cytosolic calcium and its role in the regulation of transepithelial ion 
and water transport In: Physiology and Pathophysiology OJ ' l.lcc trolyte Metabolism, ed. D Seldin 
and G. Giebisch, Raven Press. 1297 1322, 1985. 



35 



Manhattan Skyline from 
Cornell Medical Center. 
Part of Memorial SloanKettering 
Cancer Center at lower right. 



Sloan-Kettering Division 



Unit of Cell Biology and Genetics 

Faculty 



Karen Artzt 
M. Earl Balis 
June L. Biedler 
Ellen Borenfreund 
Raju S. K. Chaganti 
Zbigniew Darzynkiewicz 
David B. Donner 
Magdalena Eisinger 



DorrisJ. Hutchison 
lone A. Kourides 
Paul A. Marks 
Myron R Melamed 
Malcolm A. S. Moore 
Louis M. Pelus 
Richard A. Rifkind 
Marcello Siniscalco 
Martin Sonenberg 



Research Activities 

The staff and faculty of the Cell Biology and Genetics Unit explores aspects of 
developmental cell biology, the growth and differentiation of normal and trans- 
formed cells; endocrinology and hormone receptors; genetics, cytogenetics and 
somatic cell genetics. These studies are pursued using the most modern cellular 
biologic, genetic, molecular biologic and immunologic methodologies. 

Specific study is aimed at understanding cellular and molecular mechanisms 
that control coordinated gene expression and cell proliferation during induced cell 
differentiation, changes in DNA and chromatin structure that accompany cell differ- 
entiation, and regulatory interactions involved in the proliferation and differentia- 
tion of normal and neoplastic hematopoietic and lymphoid cells. Laboratories in 
this Unit are now identifying the specific genes and gene products responsible for 
the control and arrest of cell proliferation. This has led to the isolation, characteri- 
zation and purification of growth factors (the interleukins, human granulocyte- 
macrophage colony-stimulating factor, melanocyte growth promoting activity) 
which may play crucial roles in regulating the growth and/or differentiation of 
cells. 

The regulation of cell growth and function by extracellular agents such as 
peptide hormones, growth factors and neurotransmitters is under investigation. 
This involves characterization of plasma membrane structure and function; the rela- 
tionship between peptide hormone receptor structure and transmembrane signal- 
ling; structure and regulation of glycoprotein hormone gene expression; structure 
of intracellular receptors for steroid hormones; and the properties, functions and 
hormonal regulation of intracellular peptidase activities. 

Mechanisms leading to gene amplification and the expression of drug resist- 
ance in cultured cells are being examined. The role of homogeneously staining 
regions, double minute chromosomes and overproduced gene products in drug 



38 



resistant cells and as related to expression of the malignant neuronal phenotype by 
human neuroblastoma cells is therefore being investigated. The human genome is 
being mapped. Other research focuses on hereditary factors in the etiology of 
cancer and leukemia in humans as well as the identification of individuals with 
inherited susceptibility to cancer through understanding mechanisms leading to 
the initiation and progression of neoplasia. In the area of human tumor cell biology, 
the protein products of cellular oncogenes are being identified and characterized. 
The relationship between the expression of these unique gene products and 
cellular transformation is now under intensive investigation. 

Of major interest to Drs. Rifkind and Marks are the cellular and molecular 
mechanisms that control coordinated gene expression and proliferation during 
induced cell differentiation. The principal experimental model is the murine 
erythroleukemia cell, which is a virus- transformed red blood cell precursor 
arrested in its normal developmental process at a stage of the erythropoietic 
lineage called the colony-forming cell for erythropoiesis. Studies of the mechanisms 
implicated in the control of gene expression have demonstrated that the globin 
gene domains in murine erythroleukemia cells have acquired a unique molecular 
configuration with respect to DNA structure and chromatin configuration. Current 
studies are designed to identify and characterize regulatory elements in the globin 
gene domains that may be implicated in the process of induced gene expression, 
and to identify genes regulating cell proliferation including protooncogenes and 
related sequences. 

Dr. Biedler's research is directed toward understanding the genetic mecha- 
nisms underlying expression of acquired resistance to cancer chemotherapeutic 
agents. Of current interest is the development of multidrug resistance whereby 
cells selected with a single agent become cross-resistant to a wide variety of drugs. 
At least two amplified genes have been identified, one coding for a high molecular 
weight plasma membrane glycoprotein and the other for a low molecular weight 
cytosolic protein; the roles of the overproduced gene products are being explored. 
A second area of research is the cell biology of human neuroblastoma. This system, 
too, involves amplification of a specific gene and consequent cytogenetic abnormal- 
ities. Current studies are focused on the differential expression of the N-myc onco- 
gene and the EGF receptor gene in morphological subtypes of the tumor cells as 
related to their state of malignant transformation. 

The primary efforts in Dr. Siniscalco's laboratory are the mapping of the 
human genome and its application to molecular diagnostics and the investigation of 
chromosomal fragility with special reference to aging and malignancy. 

The role played by hereditary factors in the etiology of leukemia and other 
cancers in humans using molecular, cellular and genetic - epidemiologic 
approaches forms the basis of research in the laboratory of Dr. Chaganti. An addi- 
tional research interest in this laboratory is the study of inherited disorders that 
predispose to neoplastic disease, notably the recessively inherited disorders: 
Fanconi's anemia, ataxia-telangiectasia, and Bloom's syndrome. Current molecular 
studies emphasize cloning of translocation junctions in lymphoma and isolation of 
the genes determining the above disorders; while genetic epidemiologic 
approaches address the problem of cancer etiology at the population and pedigree 
levels. 



39 



Of related interest are investigations of the concept of immune cell participa- 
tion in hematopoiesis in Dr. Moore's laboratory. The roles of prostaglandin E and T 
cells are currently under investigation by Dr. Pelns in normal hematopoietic and 
aplastic anemia, and in allogeneic marrow transplantation. In this context, new 
techniques for treating mismatched marrow before transplantation are being devel- 
oped. Together with Dr. Moore, Dr. Pelus is investigating the biological role of 
"pluripoietin" in sustaining long-term proliferation of pluripotential stem cells and 
primary myeloid leukemic cells. 

The identification and characterization of factors involved in growth stimula- 
tion or differentiation of skin melanocytes and keratinocytes in vitro and the effect 
of cells grown in tissue culture and growth factors on wound healing in vivo is the 
focus of Dr. Eisinger's work. 

Basic research is also underway in Dr. Melamects laboratory to determine 
quantitative differences in cellular constituents that distinguish different classes of 
cells and in the molecular structure of sub-cellular components that are affected by 
cell differentiation, transformation and progress through the cell cycle. Dr. Darzyn- 
kiewicz is developing new probes and methods for multiparameter cell analysis by 
flow cytometry and applying them in studies on chromatin structure, cell cycle and 
cell sensitivity to anti-tumor drugs. Basic physicochemical studies on the interac- 
tions between intercalating drugs and nucleic acids are also underway in his 
laboratory. 

Several investigators in the Unit are conducting research on hormones. Dr. 
Donner is studying, on a molecular level, how peptide hormone-receptor interac- 
tions are regulated and translated into changes of cell growth, differentiation, or 
metabolism. The long-range objective of Dr. Sonenberg is the molecular descrip- 
tion of membrane transduction of peptide hormonal messages after interaction 
with a specific membrane receptor or other membrane component. Dr. Kourides 
studies the structure and molecular regulation of glycoprotein hormone genes and 
the molecular basis for human chorionic gonadotropin gene expression in normal 
and neoplastic tissues. 

Dr. Balis' research is concerned with the regulation and function of a series of 
enzymatic reactions known as the "adenosine cycle". Intimately connected to this 
study are the functions of enzymes involved in the methylation of various nucleic 
acids. 

Recent Publications 

Balis, M. E., Adenosine deaminase and malignant cells. Proceedings N.Y. Acad. Sci. 451:142-149, 1985. 

Balis, M. E. (with Waifan, E., Dizik, M., Hluboky, M), Altered tRNA methylation in rats and mice fed 
lipotrope-deficient diets. Carcinogenesis 7:473-476, 1986. 

Biedler, J. L. (with Rozen, M. G., El-Badry, C, Meyers, M. B., Melera, P. W., Ross, R A, and Spengler, B. 
A ), Growth stage-related synthesis and secretion of proteins by human neuroblastoma cells and 
their variants. In: Advances in Neuroblastoma Research. A. E. Evans, G. J. D'Angio and R C. 
Seeger, eds., Progress in Cancer Research and Therapy, Vol. 175, New York, Alan R. Liss, Inc., 
209-221, 1985. 

Biedler, J. L. (with Meyers, M. B., Spengler, B. A, Chang, T. -D., Melera, P. W ), Gene amplification- 
associated cytogenetic aberrations and protein changes in vincristine-resistant Chinese hamster, 
mouse, and human cells. J. Cell Biol. 100:588-597, 1985. 



40 



Uhaganti, R S. K, C yt o genetic bxsis of human cancer J Genet 64:59-67, 1985 

Chaganti, R. S. K. ( with Jhanwar, S. C. ), Chromosomal models of cancer etiology-; In Chaganti R. S K and 
German, J. (fids) Genetics in Clinical Oncology' New York:Oxford University Press, 60-79, 1985 

Darzynkiewicz, Z (with Carter, S., and Kimmcl, M ), Effects of tritium labelled uridine in the cell cycle 
progression of L1210 cells. Cell Tiss. Kinet. 17:641-655, 198S 

Darzynkicwicz, Z. (with Crissman, H. A., Tobey, R A., Steinkamp. J A. ), Correlated Measurement of 
DNA, RNA, and protein in individual cells by flow cytometry Science _'2K 1321-1 524, 19HS 

Donner, D. B. (with Iipson, K E., Kolhatkar, A. A., and Cherksey, B 1> ). < haracterization of glucagon 
receptors in golgi fractions of rat liver: evidence for receptors that are uncoupled from adenyi 
cyclase. Biochemistry 25:2612-2620. 1986. 

Donner, D B. (with Yamada, K, Lipson, K E. and Dorato. A ). Structural studies of the growth hormone 
receptor by affinity labeling. In: Human Growth Hormone, eds. Raiti, S. and Tolman, R. A., 
Plenum Publishing Co., 463-475, 1986. 

Eisinger, M. (with Marko. O., Ogata, S., Old. L J.), Growth regulation of human melanocytes: Evidence 
for growth stimulating fac tor( s ) in extracts of malignant melanoma, astrocytoma and fibroblast 
cell lines. Science 229 984-986, 1985. 

Eisinger, M., Regeneration of epidermis by cells grown in tissue culture J. Am. Academy of Dermatology' 
12:402-408, 1985. 

Kourides, L A. (with Whitfield, G. K), Expression of chorionic gonadotropin a - and - genes in normal 
and neoplastic human tissues; relationship to deoxyribonucleic acid structure. Endocrinology 
117:231-236, 1985. 

Kourides, L A. (with Dracopoli, N C, Rettig. W.J. Whitfield. G K_ Darlington, G. J., Spengler, B. A, 
Biedler, J. L, and Old L J. ), Assignment of the gene for the /3 subunit of thyroid stimulating 
hormone to the short arm of human chromosome 1. Pro. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 83:1822-1826, 
1986 

Marks, P. A. (with Rifkind. R. A., and Sheffrey, M.), Control of gene expression during terminal cell 

differentiation. In: Genetics. Cell Differentiation, and Cancer Proceedings of the Seventh Annual 
Bristol-Myers Symposium on Cancer Research, Vol. 7, ed. P. A. Marks. Academic Press, New York, 
105-117, 1985. 

Marks, P A. (with Kaneda, T., Murate. T., Sheffrey. M., Brown, K. and Rifkind. R. A. ), Gene expression 
during terminal differentiation: Dexamethasone suppression of indue er mediated al - and ft maj- 
globin gene expression. Proc Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 82:5020-5024, 1985. 

Melamed, M. R (with Moran, R.. Darzynkiewicz, Z., Staiano-Coico, L), Detection of BrdUrd incorpora- 
tion by monoclonal antibodies: Role of DNA denaturation step. J. Histochem. 33 82 1-827, 1985. 

Melamed. M R. (with Darzynkiewicz, Z.), RNA content and chromatin structure of CHO cells arrested 
in metaphase by Colcemid. Cytometry 6:381-385, 1985 

Moore, M. A. S. (with Gabrilove, J. L, Welte, K, and Lu, L, and Castro-Malaspina, H. ), Constitutive 

production of leukemia differentiation, colony stimulating, erythroid burst promoting and plurip- 
otent factors by a human hepatoma cell line: Characterization of the leukemia differentiation 
factor Blood 66:407-415. 1985. 

Moore. M. A S. (with Harris, P. E.. Ralph. P.. and Lifcofsky. P.), Distinct activities of interferon --, . 
lymphokine and cytokine differentiation inducing factors acting on the human monoblasts 
leukemia cell line U937. Cancer Res. 45:9-13, 1985 

Pelus. L M. (with Lu. L. Broxmeycr, H. E. ), Modulation of the expression of HIA-DR ( la ) antigens and 
the proliferation of human erythroid ( BFU-E ) and multipotential ( CFU-GEMM ) progenitor cells 
by prostaglandin E Exp Hematol. 12:741-748. 1985 

Pelus. I. M , Prostaglandin E mediated modulation of human marrow CFU-GM la antigen expression. 
Kinetics and specificity Exp. Hematol , 12 831 837. 1985 

Rifkind. R. A. (with Sheffery, M . and Marks, PA), Control of gene expression during terminal cell differ 
entiation. In: Genetics, Cell Differentiation, and Cancer. Pnxxcdings of the Seventh Annual 
Bristol Myers Symposium on Cancer Research, Vol. 7, ed. P A Marks Academic Press, New York, 
105-117, 1985. 



41 



Rifkind, R A. (with Corin, R E., Haspel., H. C, Peretz, A. M. and Sonenberg, M ), Antagonistic effect of 
butyrate and hexamethylene bisacetamide induced differentiation of erythroleukemia cells. 
Cancer Res. 46: 1 1 36- 1 1 4 1 , 1 986. 

Siniscalco, M. (with Keitges, E., Rivest, M., and Gartler, S. M ), X-linkage of steriod sulfatase in the mouse 
is evidence for a functional Y-linked allele. Nature 315:226-227, 1985. 

Siniscalco, M. (with Casanova, M., Leroy, P., Boucekine, C, Weissenbach, J., Bishop, C, Fellous, M., 

Purrello, M., and Fiori, G.), A human Y-linked DNA polymorphism and its potential for estimating 
genetic and evolutionary distances. Science 230:1403-1406, 1985. 

Sonenberg, M. (with Haspel, H. C, and Corin, R C), Effect of gossypol on erythrocyte membrane func- 
tion: Specific inhibition of inorganic anion exchange and interaction with band 3- J- Pharmacol 
Exp Ther. 234:575-583, 1985. 

Sonenberg, M. (with Corin, R E., and Haspel, H. C, Peretz, A M. and Rifkind, R A), Antagonistic effect 
of butyrate on hexamethylene bisacetamide induced differentiation of murine erythroleukemia 
cells. Cancer Res. 46:1 136-1 141, 1 986. 



Unit of Development Therapy and Clinical Investigation 

Faculty 



Ting-Chao Chou* 
Jack J. Fox* 
Jerrold Fried* 
Allan S. Gelbard 
Nancy L. Geller 
Susan Groshen 
John S. Laughlin 
Brian A. Otter* 



Morton K. Schwartz 
Francis M. Sirotnak* 
Stephen S. Sternberg 
Howard T. Thaler 
Kyoichi A. Watanabe* 
George Y. Wong 
Louis Zeitz 



•Participants in the Interdivisional Program in Pharmacology 

Research Activities 



Research in this Unit includes the innovative operation of the first isochronous 
cyclotron to be used in a medical research institution, resulting in the capacity to 
visualize tumors as well as specific organs and tissues. 

Studies are also being carried out to determine whether or not various tumor 
promotors could affect the expression of previously identified cell surface antigens 
on normal human melanocytes or melanoma cells. Satisfactory procedures have 
been developed for autologous transplantation of frozen and stored hematopoietic 
stem cells. Also under investigation are improved methods for purging marrow of 
residual tumor cells and the phenotypic characterization of human leukemias and 
lymphomas. 

Investigators have been working with flow cytometry to detect cell surface 
membrane light chain expression in minimal numbers of B-lymphocytes. This tech- 
nique, which is called clonal excess and requires a mathematical calculation, 
allows the detection of less than 5 percent of malignant cells in cell suspension. 



42 



Other research objectives of this Unit are to characterize the effects of various 
substances on the proliferation, differentiation, and identification of biochemical 
substances produced by selected childhood tumors and skin tumor tissue 
fibroblasts. 

The research activities and recent publications of Drs. Chou, Fox, Fried, Otter. 
Sirotnak, and Watanabe are listed under the Interdiiisional Program in Pharma- 
cology (p. 55 ) in which these faculty members are participating. Requirements 
and course offerings of this program are also described under Interdiiisional 
Programs (p. H9) 

Dr. Schwartz's studies are related to the development and evaluation of tumor- 
marker assays in blood and tissues for use in the management of the patient with 
cancer. 

Drs. Laughlin, Gelbard, and Zeitz study the in inix) metabolism in cancer 
patients and in animal tumor systems using metabolites and analogues labeled with 
short-lived, positron emitting radionuclides. These isotopes are produced on the 
Sloan-Kettering Institute isochronous cyclotron and are incorporated into 
compounds by rapid organic methods or by immobilized enzymatic procedures. 

Drs. Geller, Grosben, Thaler, and Wong have developed a computerized data 
base for the storage and retrieval of clinical research data pertinent to the collec- 
tion, processing and distribution of clinical samples to the research laboratories. 

Recent Publications 

( iclhard, A. S ( with Kascman, 1) S . Cooper, A J L, Meistcr, A., and Reiman, R. E. ), Synthesis of hydroxy) 
(N-13) amine and binding of "NH 2 OH to two transaminases. J. LabeL Compels, and Radiopharm. 
21:803-844, 1984. 

(rcllcr. N. L Statistical strategies for animal conservation. Ann. N Y. Acad. Sci. 406:20-31, 1983 

Gtoshen, S. (with Li, W. K., Lane, J. M., Rosen, G., Marcove, R C, Capanos. B., and Huvos, A.), Pelvic 
[Swing's sarcoma. Advances in treatment. J. Bone Joint Surg. 65:738-747, 1983 

ljughlin.J S (with Reiman. R. E., Rosen G (.t lhard. A. S . Benau, R. S., and Yeh, S. D.J.), Diagnostic- 
demands in clinical and experimental oncology. Applications of substrates labeled with positron 
emitting radionuclcotidcs In: Knapp, W. H. and W. H. and Vyska, K. (eds) Current Topics in 
Tumor Cell Physiology and Positron-Emission Tomograph}'. Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag, pp. 73- 
85, 1985 

Schwartz, M. K.. ( with Nisselbaum, J. S. and Flcisher. M. ). High plasma ACTH values may be obtained on 
normal individuals with kits from CIA. J Clin. Immunoassay. 8:23-28, 1984. 

Schwartz, M K. (with Statland, B , Coughlin. J . risen. < I lusher. M , [to, R . Levine,J., Ng, R„ Penn 
achie, G., Re>se, H. and Woolsey. K. Chemical and clinical evaluation of the random access 
anlarzer RA-KKH) Clin. {.hem. 30:364-368, 1984. 

Sternberg. S S (with Morrow, R.. Wong, B . Finkelstein, \X F. . and Armstrong I) ). Aspergillosis of the 
c er ebral ventricles in a heroin abuser: Case report and review of the literature Arth Intern. Med. 
143 161 164, 1983 

Inaler. H. T. (with Straus. D. J . Filippa, D. A, Lieberman, P H . Koziner, B.. and Clarkson, B. S ), The 
ne)n-Hodgkin's lvmphomas. 1 A retrospective clinical and pathologic analysis of 499 cases diag- 
nosed between 1958 and 1969 Cancer 5 1 101-109. 1983. 

Wong, d Y , Rank one round robin designs J American Stat. Assn. 79:136-144, 1984 

Zeitz, L (with ljughlinj S„ Ma, I., and Pipman.J ), "Non-isolated sensor" solid tissue equivalent A 150 
plastic absorbed dose measurements Radiation Re-s 94:5-8-584, 1984 



43 



Unit of Immunology 



Faculty 



Anthony P. Albino 
Edward A. Boyse 
Yvon Cayre 
Bo Dupont 
Neal Flomenberg 
Ulrich Hammerling 
Michael K. Hoffman 
Alan N. Houghton 
Robert W. Knowles 



Janet Lee 
Kenneth O. Lloyd 
Herbert F. Oettgen 
Lloyd J. Old 
Richard J. O'Reilly 
Bijan Safai 
Fung- Win Shen 
Osias Stutman 
Soo Young Yang 



Research Activities 

The main interests of the Unit are the study of the development, general properties, 
function and regulation of the cellular components of the immune response, as 
well as the secreted products of such cells. Research is conducted in three main 
areas: 1 ) immunogenetics, especially the cell surface determinants involved in the 
differentiation and function of normal and malignant lymphoid cells; 2 ) cellular 
immunology, especially the cellular interactions and secreted cell products 
required for effective immune responses; and 3 ) tumor immunology, particularly 
the analysis of the immunological properties of the transformed tumor and host, 
aimed at designing possible diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. Research in these 
three main areas is done using both experimental animal models as well as human 
cells. Since immunology is multidisciplinary in its approaches to a given problem, it 
not only has generated its own methodology (such as the production of mono- 
clonal antibodies, the continuous in vitro growth and cloning of the relevant 
lymphoid cells, the in vitro technologies for measurements of immunological func- 
tion, etc. ) but also uses the methods of other disciplines, such as biochemistry and 
molecular biology. For example, the analysis of the biological significance of a 
given membrane surface antigen is not only studied by applying conventional 
genetics and immunological function assays, but biochemically for the isolation of 
the given membrane surface antigen, definition of its structure and characterization 
of the gene(s) coding for such a determinant. Thus, the general approach of the 
research program is to define immunological events at the biological, biochemical, 
and molecular levels. 

The Unit offers the opportunity for obtaining a Ph.D. degree with emphasis on 
the various sub-disciplines of immunology such as immunogenetics, immunochem- 
istry, molecular immunology, immunopathology, tumor immunology, transplanta- 
tion immunology and clinical immunology. 

In the field of tumor immunology, Dr. Albino's laboratory is examining the 
role of specific oncogenes in the pathogenesis of malignant melanoma. This 
includes a comprehensive study of the steps required for the transformation of 
human melanocytes and nevocytes. In addition, this laboratory also studies the 



44 



structure and function of melanoma cell-surface differentiation proteins and their 
gene sequences. 

Dr. Boyse's laboratory focuses on the description and understanding of genetic 
programs that specify the unique molecular constitution (surface phenotype) of 
the outer membrane of cells according to their developmental lineage and stage of 
differentiation. 

The two main research objectives of />. Cayre's laboratory are to study cell 
surface immunogenetics at the molecular level and to investigate the molecular 
basis of cell differentiation and commitment. 

The central themes for Dr. Dnponfs laboratory are the characterization of the 
genetic composition of the genes of the human major histocompatability complex 
(MHC); the investigation of the molecular genetic basis for the expression of these 
extensive genetic polymorphisms of the MHC-encoded cell surface antigens as 
detected in the population; and the biological role of MHC gene products in immu- 
noregulation and other biological functions. The laboratory is also involved in 
investigations in the area of transplantation immunology, particularly in relation to 
the understanding of mechanisms responsible for graft vs. host disease. 

Investigations in Dr. Flomenberg's laboratory focus primarily on the activation 
and effector functions of human lymphocytes. A large portion of this work 
concerns the molecular interactions between the T cell and its target, focusing on 
the major histocompatibility complex gene products that initially activate or serve 
as targets for T cells, as well as the T cell surface molecules that are important for 
T cell function. Additional studies of autoreactive T cells, natural killer cells, and 
the molecular genetics of B cell differentiation are in progress. 

For the mouse, the majority of genes encoding lymphocyte antigens are orga- 
nized in distinct multigene families positioned on several chromosomes. Study of 
these gene clusters continues to be the major theme of Dr. Hammerling's efforts. 
The immunogenetics of murine and human lymphoid and hemopoietic cell surface 
antigens using monoclonal antibodies is another area of Dr. Hammerling's studies, 
with special emphasis on their role in T cell activation. 

The main interest of Dr. Hoffmann's studies is the analysis of the direct and 
factor-mediated cellular interactions in the human and murine antibody responses 
in litro. 

Dr. Houghton's research program to investigate the pathogenesis and treat- 
ment of malignant melanoma arises from his interest in the biology of human solid 
tumors. Dr. Houghton views malignant melanoma as a paradigm for the patho- 
genesis of human cancer. His studies involve the phenotypic and genotypic expres- 
sion of antigens related to differentiation and transformation of melanocytes. 

Dr. Knowles' laboratory has developed monoclonal antibodies that provide an 
extensive panel of unique probes to examine cell surface molecules and their func- 
tional epitopes. These have been used in the biochemical and genetic characteriza- 
tion of the human histocompatibility antigens and the differentiation antigens of 
the human T cell, B cell and myeloid lineages. Molecular analysis of a genomic 
rearrangement responsible for an inherited defect in the expression of a histocom- 
patibility gene is in progress. 

The molecular genetics of the human major histocompatability complex or 
HLA genes is the major area of study of Dr. Lee's laboratory. Her work currently 
concentrates in initial studies of characterization and mapping of the genes within 



4S 



the HLA region on human chromosome 6. These experiments focus on the pres- 
ence in the genome of as yet uncharacterized HLA Class II genes. 

Investigations of the glycoproteins and glycolipids of human tumor cells and 
normal cells are the focus of research in Dr. Lloycts laboratory. Particular emphasis 
has been on the biochemical identification and characterization of these 
components. 

The main effort in Dr. Oettgen's laboratory is on the serological analysis of 
human cancer antigens, the human and cellular immune responses to human 
cancer, and the development and application of human cancer therapies using 
cancer antigens, immunogenic cancer vaccines and monoclonal antibodies. 

Dr. Old's research is concerned with the development of two new approaches 
to cancer therapy: tumor necrosis factor and monoclonal antibodies directed 
against surface determinants on malignant cells. The latter is part of a general effort 
to analyze the cell surface of human and murine tumors, with the aim to charac- 
terize the important surface molecules, mostly with monoclonal antibodies and 
other serological procedures. 

The principal objective of Dr. O'Reilly's Bone Marrow Transplantation Program 
is the development and improvement of transplantation approaches for the treat- 
ment of lethal disorders of the blood system through an integrated program of clin- 
ical and basic research in immunology, hematology, genetics, and transplantation 
biology. 

Investigation into the biology of epidermal keratinocytes and Langerhans cells 
is the focus of Dr. Safafs research, with the objective of defining the antigenic 
components of the epidermal keratinocytes and their secretory capacity and char- 
acterizing lymphocyte-epidermal interactions. 

Working mostly with normal lymphoid cells and their leukemic derivatives, Dr. 
Shen's laboratory is particularly concerned with the regulation and function of 
genetic systems that participate in normal and disordered differentiation. 

The definition of the steps involved in the development, maintenance and 
function of T (thymus-dependent) cells through the use of murine models has 
been one of the main areas of Dr. Stutman 's research. Another area of interest is 
the study of the immunological components of the tumor-host interaction. These 
studies include the definition of tumor-specific responses; examination of the role 
of such responses in affecting tumor development and behavior, and the produc- 
tion of specific and non-specific cytotoxic cells that can kill tumor cells. 

Dr. Yang is involved in studies of T-lymphocyte activation, lymphokine 
production and regulation, T-lymphocyte macrophage interactions, and characteri- 
zation of T-lymphocyte differentiation antigens and their functions, as well as the 
gene organization and regulation of gene expression in the Class I MHC genetic 
region in humans. 

Recent Publications 

Albino, A. P. (with Le Strange, R. C, Oliff, A. L, Furth, M. E., and Old, L. J ), Transforming ras genes from 
human melanoma: Another manifestation of tumor heterogeneity? Nature 37: 308:69-71, 1984. 

Albino, A P. (with Graf, L H ., Kantor, R. R. S., McLean, W., Silagi, S., and Old, L. J ), DNA-mediated 

transfer of human melanoma cell surface glycoprotein, gp 1 30: Identification of transfectants by 
erythrocyte resetting. Mol. and Cell. Biol. 5:692-697, 1985. 



46 



Boysc. E A . Ihc biology of Tla. Cell 38: 12, 1984. 

Boysc, F A. (with Bushkin. Y , lung, J S , Pinter. A . and Michaclson, J ), Unusual association of beta 2 
microglobulin with certain class l beavj chains ot tin Major Histocompatibility Complex Proc. 
Natl. Acad. Sd. USA 83 432-4 36. 1986 

Ca>Te. Y. (with Morello. D., Daniel, F. Baldacci, P. Gachclin. G , and Kourilsky, P.), Absence of signifi- 
cant H-2 and B2-microglobulin mRNAs expression by mouse embryonal carcinoma cells Nature 
296260-262. 1982 

Cayre, Y. (with Silverstonc, A.E.), Phenot>ping the prothymocytc Suit Immunol. Res 4:1 118, 19HS 

Dupont, B (with Chouaib, S , Wcltc. K, and Mertelsmann. R. ), Prostaglandin E2 acts at two distinct 

pathways of T- lymphocyte activation: Inhibition of Interleukin 2 production and downregulation 
ot transferrin receptor expression J Immunol 135 1 172 1 l^B, 1985 

Dupont. B ( with White. P C, and New, M. 1. ), Adrenal 2 1 -hydroxylase cytochrome P-450 genes within 
MHC class II region. Immunological Reviews 87:123-150, 1985 

Flomenberg, N. (with Rosenkrantz, K., and Dupont, B ). Generation and regulation of autocytotoxicity 
in mixed Ivmphocvte cultures: Evidence for active suppression of autoevtotoxic cells. Proc. Natl 
Acad. Sci. USA 82:4508-4512. 1985 

Flomenberg, N. (with Knowles, R. W., Williams, D., Horibe, K.. Rosenkrantz, K. and Dupont, B ), T 
lymphocvic clones detecting novel supcrtvpic HLA-class II allospecificities. Immunogenetics 
22:295-300. 1985 

Hammerling, U., (with Holmes. K L. Palfrcc. R G F., and Morese, H. C), Alleles of the Ly-17 alloantigen 
define polymorphisms of the murine lgG Fc receptor Proc Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 82:7706-7710, 
1985 

Hammerling, V. (with Palfree. R. G. E ). Biochemical characterization of the murine activated lympho 
cytc alloantigen I.y -6E 1 controlled by the l y 6 locus J Immunol 136 594-600, 1986. 

Hoffmann, M. K. (with Gilbert. K. M ), cAMP is an essential signal in the induction of antibody produc- 
tion by B cells but inhibits helper function of T cells. J Immunol. 135:2084-2089, 1985 

Hoffmann, M. K. (with (^hun. M , Krim, A. L, Granelli Piperno. A., and Hirst, J A ). Enhancement of cyto- 
toxic activity of natural killer cells by interleukin 2 and adenosine cyclic monophosphate. Scand. 
J Immunol. 22 .375 381, 1985 

Houghton, A. N. (with Dracopoli, N., and Old, LJ.), Random loss of polymorphic restriction fragments 
in human melanoma: implications for tumor initiation and heterogeneity Proc Natl Acad. Sci. 
USA 82:1470-1474. 1985 

Houghton, A. N. (with Cordon-Cardo, C.. and Fisingcr. ML ). Differentiation antigens of melanocytes and 
me lanoma. Int. Rev Exp Path 28:217-247, 1986. 

Knowles. R. V. . Immunochemical analysis of the T cell specific antigens In: Leukocyte Typing U. Vol. I. 
Ed. by E L Reinherz, B. F. Haynes, I. M. Nadler and I D. Bernstein. New York: Springer-Verlag, 
pp 259 -288, 1986 

Knowles. R W. (with Horibe, K. and Dupont B ). A new supertypic class II determinant expressed with 
DR7. DRwll( 5 ), DRwl4(w6), DR3 and DR2 and biochemically localized to DR^ molecules. 
Human Immunol. 16:14-23, 1986 

Ire J. S., Cohen E B., Hume C. R. and Sartoris S., Organization, pohmorphism. and regulation of clxvs II 
genes of the major histocompatibility complex. In: Surveys (i) ''Immunological Resettrcb. ed. 
Coligan J . and Cruse J. M.. (S. Karger AG Publishers. Basel. Switzerland), in press. 

Lee, J. S. (with Erlich H . Bugawan T . Petersen J L, and DcMars R. ), Molecular analysis of HLA class I 
and class II antigen loss mutants reveals a homozygous deletion of the DR. DQ, and part of the 
DP region Human Immunol 16 205-219. 1986. 

Lloyd. K. O (with Furukaw^i, K. and Mattes. M. J ), Al and A2 crthrocytcs can be distinguished by 
reagents that do not detect structural differences between the two cell types. J Immunol. 
1354090-4094, 1985. 



47 



Lloyd, K O. (with Sakamoto, J., Furukawa, K, Cordon-Cardo, C, Yin, B. W. T., Rettig, W. J., Oettgen, H. 
R, and Old, L. J. ), Expression of Lewis a, Lewis b, X, and Y blood group antigens in human 
colonic tumors and normal tissue and in human tumor-derived cell lines. Cancer Res. 46:1553- 
1561, 1986. 

Oettgen, H. F. (with Real, F. X., Houghton, A. N., Albino, A P., Cordon-Cardo, C, Melamed, M. R, and 
Old, L. J.), Surface antigens of melanomas and melanocytes definied by mouse monoclonal anti- 
bodies: Specificity analysis and comparison of antigen expression in cultured cells and tissues. 
Cancer Res. 45:4401-4411, 1985. 

Oettgen, H. F. (with Morishita, H, Shiku, H., Horibe, K., Obata, Y, Stockert, E., Old, L. J., and Yamada, 

K), Cell surface antigens of murine leukemia induced by radiation leukemia virus. Recognition of 
individually distinct cell surface antigens by cytotoxic T cells on leukemias expressing crossreac- 
tive transplantation antigens. J. Exp. Med. 163 452-457, 1986. 

Old, L. J. (Rettig, W. J., Real, F. X., Spengler, B. A, and Biedler, J. L.), Human melanoma proteoglycan: 

Cell surface expression in hybrids controlled by intrinsic and extrinsic signals. Science 231:1281- 
1283, 1986. 

Old, L. J. (with Chen, Y. T., Obata, Y, and Stockert, E.), Thymus-leukemia (TL) antigens of the mouse. 
Analysis of TL mRNA and TL cDNA from TL+ and TL- strains. J. Exp. Med. 162:134-1 148, 1985. 

O'Reilly, R (with Collins, N., Kernan, N., Brochstein, J., Dinsmore, R, et.al ), Transplantation of marrow 
depleted of T cells by soybean lectin agglutination and E-rosette depletion: major histocompati- 
bility complex-related graft resistance in leukemia transplant recipients. Transplant Proc. 17:455, 
1985. 

O'Reilly, J. (with Kernan, N, Flomenberg, N., Collins, N. H., and Dupont, B), Quantitation of T lympho- 
cytes in human bone marrow by a limiting dilution assay. Transplant. 40:317-322, 1985. 

Safai, B. (with Sarngadharan, M. G, Koziner, B., Godbold, J., Myskowski, P. L., Cunningham-Rundles, S., 
Johnson, K, Gold, J., Krown, S., and Dupont, B ), The spectrum of Kaposi's sarcoma in the 
epidemic of AIDS. Cancer Res. 45:4646-4648, 1985. 

Safai, B. (with Robey, W. G, Oroszlan, S., Arthur, L O, Gorda, M. A, Gallo, R C, and Fischinger, D. J.), 
Characterization of envelope and core structural gene products of HTLV-III with sera from AIDS 
patients. Science 228:593-595, 1985. 

Shen, F. W. (with Saga, Y, Lit man. G., Freeman, G, Tung, J. S., Cantor, H., and Boyse, E. A), Cloning of 
Ly-5 cDNA Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 82:7360-7363, 1985. 

Shen, F. W. (with Chorney, M. J., Tung, J. S., and Boyse, E. A. ), Additional products of the Ha locus of 
the mouse. Proc. Natl. Sci. USA 82:7044-7047, 1985. 

Stutman, O. (with Macphail, S., Ishizaka, S. T., Bykowsky, M. J., and Lattime, E. C), Specific neonatally 
induced tolerance to Mis locus determinants. J. Immunol. 135:2967-2974, 1985. 

Stutman, O., Postthymic T cell development. Immunol. Rev. 91:159-194, 1986. 

Yang, S. Y. (with Morishima, Y, Collins, N. H, Alton, T, Pollack, M. S., Yunis, E. J., and Dupont, B.), 

Comparison of one dimensional IEF patterns for serologically detectable HLA-A and B allotypes. 
Immunogenetics 19:217-231, 1984. 

Yang, S. Y. (with Chang, A, Olivero, R, Relias, V., and Yunis, E. J.), IEF patterns of HLA-B13 antigens for 
Orientals and Caucasians. Immunogentics 21:125-134, 1985. 



48 



Intcrdivisional Programs 



Molecular Biology 

Faculty 



Francis Barany 
Kenneth Berns 
Feter Besmer 
Moses V. Chao 



Robert M. Krug 
Flizabeth H. Lacy 
Kenneth J. Marians 
Feter W. Melera 
Norma Neff 
Michael E. O'Donnell 
Paul V. ODonnell 
Jeffery V. Ravetch 
Ora M. Rosen 
Ganes C. Sen 
Michael B. Sheffery 
Paula Traktman 



Eric Falck-Pedersen 
Nancy G. Famulari 



Frvvin Fleissner 
Mark E. Furth 
Sohan L. Gupta 



William S. Hayward 
William Holloman 
Jerard Hurwitz 



Research Activities 

Several of the Fields and Units of the Graduate School of Medical Sciences jointly 
offer an interdisciplinary program of graduate research training in the structure, 
function and regulation of genetic elements, including control of normal gene 
expression, gene replacement, oncogenes and oncogene expression, oncogenic 
viruses, chromosome structure, nucleic acid replication, recombination and repair, 
and growth factors and their receptors. 

In the laboratories, the control of gene expression is studied in a variety of 
viral and cellular systems, in cell-free systems, in cell cuture, and in the intact 
organism. Influenza virus and adenovirus serve as models for the control mecha- 
nisms involved in the synthesis, processing and translation of RNA, both in the cell 
and in cell-free systems. Various eukaryotie virus expression vectors are being 
constructed for these studies. Virus- infected cells are also being employed for 
molecular studies of interferon action. Cells responsive to specific inducing agents 
are used to elucidate the regulation of gene transcription by peptide hormones, by 
interferon, and by chromatin structure. The gene amplification or rearrangement 
events frequently observed in tumor cells reveal the profound effects of such DNA 
alterations on gene transcription. Mice carrying new genes introduced by injection 
of DNA into early embryos provide novel examples of tissue-specific control of 
gene expression. 

Research of the mechanism of both prokaryotic and eukaryotie DNA replica- 
tion employs cell-free replication systems. Model systems have been developed to 
study the replication of SV40, herpes-simplex, vaccinia and adenovirus as well as 
leading- and lagging-strand DNA synthesis on the bacterial chromosome. These 



49 



studies hope to elucidate control elements and specific protein-nucleic acid inter- 
actions involved in eukaryotic DNA replication. Related studies are being carried 
out on the enzymological mechanisms involved in the recombination of 
chromosomes. 

Much of the research on the control of cellular metabolism and growth 
focuses on crucial regulatory proteins involved in the transmission of signals at the 
cell membrane, including various cell surface receptors, protein kinases, and the 
calcium binding protein calmodulin. In addition to biochemical and physiological 
studies, substantial effort is being made to isolate and determine the nucleotide 
sequences of the genes encoding these important proteins. 

The mechanism of action of viral and cellular genes directly implicated in 
neoplasia is under active investigation. Studies have shown that retroviruses in 
birds, rodents, and cats transduce a number of oncogenes encoding proteins that 
vary greatly in their cellular oncogenicity, leading to the development of specific 
cancers, such as lymphomas, thymomas and erythroleukemia. Activated oncogenes 
have also been identified in the DNA of animal and human tumors with no known 
viral etiology. The study of the mechanism of activation of these cellular genes and 
of their gene products may provide insight into the molecular basis of human 
cancer. 

Dr. Krugs research focuses on the unique interaction of influenza virus with 
its host cells as a model system for elucidating control mechanisms involved in the 
synthesis, processing, and translation of both viral and cellular messenger RNAs. 

Dr. Falck-Pedersen concentrates on developing an understanding of transcrip- 
tion in eucaryotic cells. In particular, a combined biochemical and molecular 
genetical approach is being used to analyze the termination of transcription by 
RNA polymerase II. 

Dr. Hurwitz is conducting studies of prokaryotic and eukaryotic replication of 
DNA and RNA processing. These studies focus on the enzymes and enzymological 
mechanisms involved in these processes. 

Dr. Traktman's laboratory also studies viral DNA replication in eukaryotes. 
Both biochemistry and molecular genetics are employed to define the genes of 
vaccinia virus that are required for its replication. An in vitro replication system is 
also being developed. 

A laboratory with related research interests, headed by Dr. Marians, focuses 
on studies of the enzymological mechanisms of DNA replication in prokaryotes. 
The use of in vitro DNA replication systems composed of purified replication 
proteins enables detailed analyses of the interaction of the replication proteins 
with each other and with the DNA template. 

A detailed examination of the molecular mechanics of DNA replication is also 
the focus of Dr. M. O DonnelFs laboratory. The dynamic motions on templates of 
the multi-protein replicative polymerase of E. coli and its interaction with other 
proteins at the replication fork are under study. 

Another key cellular process that occurs on DNA is the exchange of genetic 
information through the process of recombination. Dr. Holloman's laboratory 
studies the enzymological mechanisms involved in this complicated process. Model 
studies focus on the mechanism of synopsis and DNA strand exchange promoted 
by the rec 1 protein. 



50 



The only families of linear DNA viruses that replieate in mammalian cell nuclei 
are the adeno-associated virus, the adenovirus and herpesvirus; the structure and 
function of one of these is the object of study of Dr. Berns ' lahoratory. This virus 
was selected hecause it is thought to be highly amenable to detailed longitudinal 
investigation, since it readily establishes latent infections in continuous cell lines in 
culture derived from the normal host. A study of this virus may also have bearing 
on the molecular biology of cellular DNA replication and transcription. 

Research on the mechanisms of DNA uptake and homologous integration in 
naturally transformable bacteria is the basis for studies of the mechanisms of 
genetic transfer by Dr. Barony. Future research in this laboratory will shift to trans- 
formation mechanisms in eukaryotic cells with a view to the eventual development 
of gene therapy 

Flucidation of the mechanism of action of insulin and related growth factors, 
leading to a detailed understanding of the receptor molecule as well as the mecha- 
nism^) by which it transmits signals from the cell surface to its interior is the prin- 
cipal goal of Dr. Rosen's research. 

The gene for human nerve growth factor has been isolated by Dr. Chao s labo- 
ratory. Recombinant DNA technology is being used to study the important struc- 
tural features of the gene and the molecular basis of differential receptor expres- 
sion during development. 

In a series of experiments in /J>r. Rai'etch's laboratory, the molecular genetic 
analysis of cell surface receptor proteins is being conducted, aimed at defining 
their modulation, mechanism of signal transduction and developmental regulation 
by isolation and characterization of genes that code for proteins binding immuno- 
globulin ( FC receptors), by studying the interaction of the malaria producing para- 
site with the erythrocyte, and by characterizing the activated macrophage 
phenotype. 

Several laboratories are intensely studying the development of leukemia in 
mice and humans. Dr. Fleissnefs laboratory focuses on the genetic systems impli- 
cated in this process. Lines of research include several investigations aimed at 
determining the number and nature of the genetic steps involved in the derivation 
of malignant T-cells. Other studies involve collaborations with Drs. P. O'DontieU, 
Hamrnerling, and Hoffman, focusing on the N-ras oncogene's effects on T-cclls. A 
third group of studies deals with the correlations between specific structural 
features of murine leukemia virus env gene proteins and their functions. 

Dr. Famularis research centers on studies of retrovirus-induced leukemo- 
genesis in the mouse using intrathymic injection of virus in order to develop 
thymomas, a model well suited for analysis of progression of target cells from 
normal to malignant phenotype. 

Dr. Haywards research objective is to elucidate the mechanisms by which 
viral and non-viral agents induce neoplastic disease through the use of three classes 
of avian retroviruses as model systems. 

Mutations affecting the structure and the control of expression of oncogenes 
contribute to carcinogenesis Dr. f urtb's laboratory is engaged in research on the 
structure and function of the ras oncogene proteins. Genetically distinct ras gener- 
ally are very similar, but differ dramatically in a small hypervariablc region located 
near the carboxyi terminus. A major goal of the laboratory is to determine how this 
region contributes to the function of these proteins A second area of study in the 



^1 



laboratory concerns growth factors that regulate the proliferation and differentia- 
tion of hematopoietic cells. 

Current research objectives of Dr. Besmefs laboratory are to investigate the 
structure and function of the proto-oncogene KIT to investigate its role in 
neoplastic transformation; and to determine the basis of the differing neoplastic 
potential of the murine and feline abl viruses. 

The creation of systems in the mouse for the study of the development of T- 
cell leukemia is the major focus of Dr. P. ODonnells laboratory. Efforts are 
directed at characterizing the sequence of events in what now appears to be a 
multistep process of virus-induced transformation and progression to frank 
leukemia. 

The study of biochemical mechanisms involved in the action of interferons to 
elucidate the early events involved in the interferons-mediated induction of specific 
cellular genes leading to the development of the antiviral state (and other biolog- 
ical effects), and the manner in which the expression of the cellular genes is regu- 
lated is of major importance in Dr. Gupta's laboratory. 

Studies of the mechanisms of action of interferons against vesicular stomatitis 
virus, encephalomyocarditis virus, and retroviruses representing three virus groups 
with completely different replication strategies are underway in Dr. Serfs 
laboratory. 

The production and analysis of embryonic lethal mutations and the identifica- 
tion of DNA sequences involved in regulating the stage-specific and tissue-specific 
expression of genes during mammalian development are the foci of Dr. Lacys 
research. In the future, her laboratory will attempt a similar study with embryonic 
and adult alpha-globin genes. She is working collaboratively with Dr. James 
Darnell's laboratory at Rockefeller University to generate lines of transgenic mice 
carrying genes specifically transcribed in liver to explore the sequence require- 
ments of this class of genes for correct developmental expression and in order to 
isolate mutations which disrupt embryogenesis in the mouse. 

Research in Dr. Shefferys laboratory is directed at understanding how proteins 
and DNA interact to form structures that influence gene transcription. Particular 
effort is devoted to understanding tissue-specific gene expression. 

Dr. Melera's laboratory is involved in three major research projects: the first 
attempts to unravel the response of Chinese hamster lung cells (CHL) to antifolate 
challenge via the overproduction of two different molecular weight forms of the 
target enzyme dihydrofolate reductase; the second seeks to understand the role of 
gene amplification in the establishment of the multidrug- resistant phenotype 
displayed by CHL cells selected with vincristine; and the third is a study of DNA 
sequence amplification in human cancer, particularly neuroblastoma. 

Current work in Dr. Neffs laboratory centers on the regulation of gene 
expression during the cell cycle of the simple eukaryotic baker's yeast, Saccharo- 
myces cerevisiae, with calcium and calmodulin used as signal molecules during the 
cell cycle. 



52 



Recent Publications 

Barany, F (with Kahn, M. E , and Smith, H. O ), Directional transport and intcgratin ol donor DNA in 
Haemophilus influenzae transformation. Proc Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 80:7274-7278, 1983. 

Barany, F. Two codon insertion mutagenisis of plasmid genes using single-stranded hexanieric oligonu- 
cleotides. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 82.4202-4206. 1985 

Berns. K. 1 (with UFcbvrc, R . and Riva, S. ), Conformation takes precedence over sequence in adeno 
associated virus DNA replication. Molec. Cell. Biol. 4:1416-1419, 1984 

Berns, K. I (with Hcrmonat, P. L, Labow, M. A., Wright, R., and Muzyczka, N. ), Die genetics of adeno- 
associatcd \irus: Isolation and preliminary characterization of mutants in AAV-2. J. Virol. 51:329- 
339, 1984. 

Besmer, P Acute tranforming feline retroviruses Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol. 107:1-27, 1983. 

Besmer, P. (with Murphy. J. E., George, P. G., Qui, F. Q.. Bergold. P. J.. Lidcrman. L, Snyder, H. W., 

Brodeur, D , Zuckerman, F. F . and Hardy, W. D. ), A new acute transforming feline retrovirus and 
relationship of its oncogene v-kit with the protein kinase gene family. Nature 320 415-421, 1 1 >K(> 

Chao, M V (with Mill, J. R., and Ishii, D N ), Insulin, insulin like growth factor II, and nerve growth 

factor effects on tubulin mRNA levels and reunite formation. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 82:7126-7130, 
1985 

Chao, M V. (with Bothwell, M. A., Ross, A. H., Koprowski, H., lanahan, A., Buck, C R., and Sehgal, A ), 
Gene transfer and molecular cloning of the human NGF receptor. Science 232:518-521, 1984. 

Falck-Pedersen. E. (with Citron B., Salditt-Geogieff, M., and Darnell, J. E., Jr.), Transcription termination 
occurs within a 1000 base pair region downstream from the poly A site of the mouse B-globin 
gene Nucleic Acids Research, 12, 22:8723-8731, 1984. 

1 lick Pcdcrscn. E. (with Logan, J , Shenk, T., and Darnell, J. E , Jr. ), Transcription termination within the 
Ela gene of adenovirus induced by inhibition of the mouse B-major globin terminator element. 
Cell 40, 4:897-905. 1985 

Famulari, N. G. (with Cieplensk\. 1) ) A time course study of Mul.V env gene expression in the AKR 
thymus: qualitative and quantitative analysis of ecotropic and recombinant virus gene products. 
Virology 132:282-291, 1984. 

Famulari, N. G.. Murine leukemia viruses with recombinant env genes: A discussion of their role in 
leukemogenesis. J. Cur. Top. in Microbio. and Immu. 130:75-108, 1983- 

Fleissner, E. (with Souyri, M), Identification by transfection of transforming sequences in DNA of 
human T-cell leukemias. Proc Natl. Acad. Sci 80*6676-6679, 1983. 

Fleissner, E. (with Newcomb, E. N., and Binari, R.), A comparative analysis of radiation and virus- 
induced leukemias in BAI.B c mice Virology, 140:102-1 12, l l )KS 

Furth. M. (with Fasano. O., Aldrich. T., Tamanoi, F., Taparowsky, E.. and Wiglcr. M ). Analysis of the 
transforming potential of the human H-ras gene bv random mutagenesis. Proc. Natl. Acad V i 
81 4008-4012, 1984. 

Furth, M. E. (with Andreeff. M . Slater. D E.. and Bressler, J ), Cellular rus oncogene expression and cell 
cycle measured by flow cytometry in hematopoietic cell lines. Blood 67:676-681, 1985. 

Gupta, S L (with Rubin. B Y , and Holmes, S. L), Regulation of interferon action in human fibroblasts; 
transient induction of specific proteins and amplification of the antiviral response by actinomy- 
ocin D. Virology 111:331-340, 1981 

Gupta. S. L (with Sarkar, F H ). Receptors from human gamma interferon: binding and cross linking of 
l2 Mlabel recombinant human gamma interferon to receptors on w 1SH cells PltX Nat l. Acad V i 
USA, 81:5160-5164, 1981. 

Hayward. W. S. (with Wiman, K., Clarkson, B , Hayday, A. C, Saito, H., and Toncgawa, S.), Activation of a 
translocated CMJK gene: Role of structural alterations in the upstream region Proc. Natl. Acad. 
Sci. USA, 81:6798 6802. 1984. 



5.3 



Hayward, W. S. (with Shih, C. K, Linial, M., and Goodenow, M ), Nucleotide sequence 5' of the chicken 
c-myc coding region: Localization of a non-coding exon that is absent from myc transcripts in 
most ALV induced lymphomas. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., USA 81:4697-4701, 1981. 

Holloman, W. K (with Kmiec, E. B., and Angelides, K J.), Left-handed DNA and the synaptic pairing 
reaction promoted by Ustilago Rec 1 protein. Cell 40:139-145, 1985. 

Holloman, W. K (with Kmiec, E. B ), Homologous pairing of DNA molecules by Ustilago Rec 1 protein 
is promoted by sequences of z-DNA. Cell 44:545-554, 1986. 

Hurwitz, J. (with Nagata, K, and Guggenheimer, R. A), Specific binding of a cellular DNA replication 

protein to the origin of replication of adenovirus DNA Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 80:6177-6181, 1983- 

Hurwitz, J. (with Guggenheimer, R A, Stillman, B. W., Nagata, K, and Tamanoi, F ), DNA sequences 
required for the in vitro replication of adenovirus DNA. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 81:3069-3073, 
1984. 

Krug, R. M. (with Katze, M. G, Morgan-Detjen, B., and Safer, B ), Translational control by influenza virus: 
suppression of the kinase that phosphorylates the alpha subunit of initiation factor eIF-2 and 
selective translation of influenza viral mRNAs. Molecular and Cellular Biology 6:1741-1750, 1986. 

Krug, R. M. (with Plotch, S. J ), In vitro splicing of influenza viral NS1 mRNA and NSl-B-globin chimeras: 
Possible mechanisms for the control of viral mRNA splicing. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, in press. 

Lacy, E. (with Chada, K, Magram, J., Raphael, K, Radice, G., and Costantini, F ), Specific expression of 
foreign -globin gene in erythroid cells of transgenic mice. Nature 314:377-380, 1984. 

Lacy, E. (with Mark, W. H., Signorelli, K), An insertional mutation in a transgenic mouse line results in 
developmental arrest at day 5 of gestation. Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology 
L453-463, 1985. 

Lustig, A. (with Petes, T. D ), Long poly A tracts in the human genome are associated with the Alu family 
of repeated elements. J. Mol. Biol. 180:753-759. 

Lustig, A. (with Petes, T. D. ), Identification of yeast mutants with altered telomere structure. Proc. Natl. 
Acad. Sci., USA 83:1398-1402. 

Marians, K J., (with Greenbaum, J. H ), Mutational analysis of primosome asseembly sites III. Evidence 
for alternative DNA structures, J. Biol. Chem. 260:12266-12272, 1985. 

Marians, K J. (with Minden, J. S ), Replication of pBR322 DNA in vitro with purified proteins: Require- 
ment for topoisomerase I in maintenance of template specificity. J. Biol. Chem. 260:9316-9325, 
1985. 

Melera, P. W. (with Scotto, K W., and Biedler, J. L.) Amplification and expresion of genes associated 
with multi drug resistance in mammalian cells. Sci. 232:751-755, 1986. 

Melera, P. W. (with Michitsch, R. W ), Nucleotide sequence of the 3' exon of the human N-myc gene. 
Nucleic Acids Res. 13:2545-2558, 1985. 

Neff, N. (with Thomas, J. H., Grisafi, P., and Botstein, D.), Isolation of the B-tubulin gene from yeast and 
demonstration of its essential function in vivo. Cell 33:211-219, 1983. 

Neff, N. (with Thomas, J., Botstein, D), Isolation and characterization of mutations in the tubulin genes 
of yeast. Genetics 112:715-734, 1985. 

O'Donnell, M. E. (with Kornberg, A), Dynamics of DNA polymerase III holoenzyme of Escherichia coli 
in replication of a multiprimed template. J. Bio. Chem. 260:12875-12883, 1985. 

O'Donnell, M. E. (with Kornberg, A), Complete replication of templates of Escherichia coli DNA 
polymerase III holoenzyme. J. Bio. Chem. 260:12884-12889, 1985. 

O'Donnell P. V. (with Stockert, E., Obata, Y., and Old, L. J.), Leukemogenic properties of AKR dualtropic 
(MCF) viruses: Amplification of murine leukemia virus-related antigens on thymocytes and accel- 
eration of leukemia development in AKR mice. Virology 1 12:548-563, 1981. 

O'Donnell, P. V. (with Woller, R., and Chu, A), Stages in development of mink cell focus-inducing 
(MCF) virus accelerated leukemia in AKR mice. J. Exp. Med. 160:914-934, 1984. 

Ravetch, J. V. (with Kochan, J., and Perkins, M. ), Isolation of the gene for a glycophorin binding protein 
of the human malarial parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Science 227: 1593- 1596, 1985. 



54 



Ravctch, J V (with Luster. A. 1)., and I'nkclcss, J. G ), 7-intcrfcron transcriptionally regulates an early 
response gene with homology to platelet proteins. Nature 315:672-676, 1985 

Rosen, O M. (with I'lrich. A., Bell, J R., Chen, F... Herrera, R, Petruzzelli, L M , Liao, Y -C , Dull, T J., 

Coussene, L, Gray, A., Tsuhokawa, M., Mason, A., and Raniachandran, J ). Human insulin receptor 
cDNA sequence Nature 313 756-761, 1985. 

Rosen, C). M. (with Petruzzelli, L M , Herrera, R., and Garcia-Arcnas, R. ), Acquisition of insulin depen- 
dent protein tyrosine kinase activity during Drosophila Embryogenesis. J, Bio. Chan. 260: 16072- 
16075, 1985. 

Sen, G. C (with Kusari, J ). Regulation of synthesis and turnover of an interferon-inducible mRNA MoL 
Cell Biol. 6, 1986. in press. 

Sen, G. C (with Ruhin, B. Y. ), Synthesis of interferon-inducihle proteins is regulated differently by 
interferon-or and interferon- 7. Virology 134:483-488, 1984 

Sheffcry, M. (with Cohen, R. B. ), Nucleosome disruption precedes transcription and is largely limited to 
the transcribed domain of globin genes in murine erythroleukemia cells. J. Mol. Bio. 182:109- 
129. 1985. 

Sheffery, M. (with Cohen, R. B. ), Partial purification of a nuclear protein that binds to the CCAAT box of 
the mouse a, globin gene Mol. and Cell Biol. 6:821-832. 

Traktman, P. (with Baltimore, D. ). Protease bypass of temperature-sensitive murine leukemia virus 
matuation mutants. J. Virology 44:1039-1046, 1982. 

Traktman, P (with Sridhar, P , Condit, R. C. and Roberts, B. E. ), Transcriptional mapping of the DNA 
polymerase gene of vaccinia virus. J. Virology 49: 125-131, 1 984. 



Pharmacology 

Faculty 

Walter W. Y. Chan 
Ting-Chao, Chou 
Diane F. Felsen 
Jack J. Fox 
Jerrold Fried 
Charles E. Inturrisi 
Roherto Levi 
Michiko Okamoto 



Brian A. Otter 
Gavril W Pasternak 
Marcus M. Reidenberg 
Arleen B. Rifkind 
Francis M. Sirotnak 
Hazel H. Szeto 
Kyoichi A. Watanabe 



Research Activities 

This joint program, sponsored by faculties of the Field of Pharmacology of the 
Medical College Division and the Unit of Developmental Therapy and Clinical 
Investigation of the Sloan-Kcttering Division, offers a broad spectrum of training 
opportunities from the molecular level to whole organism pharmacology. 

Dr. W. Y. Chan: This laboratory is interested in the functions and interactions 
of prostaglandins and neurohypophysial peptides in the kidney and the uterus 
Current research covers investigative studies from subcellular levels to the whole 



S5 



organism. We have found that certain analogs of oxytocin and vasopression stimu- 
late urinary sodium and water excretion. This renal effect of the peptide appears to 
be mediated by renal prostaglandin release. The biochemical mechanisms of this 
peptide-induced prostaglandin release is the principal concern of our research. 
Additionally, we also study the renal activities of peptide analogs specifically 
synthesized for our project with the aim to discover specific prostaglandin^ 
releasing peptides that may be useful for the treatment of renal hypertension. 

In the uterus, we are investigating the roles of prostaglandins and oxytocin in 
the regulation of uterine contractions, especially relating to preterm labor, using 
the pregnant rat model. The effects of endogenous prostaglandin on the density of 
oxytocin receptors in myometrial plasma membrane and on the formation of gap- 
junctions of myometrial cells are determined by radio-ligant receptor binding and 
by electron microscopy. Highly potent oxytocin antagonists have been synthesized 
for this project. Their potential in the prevention of preterm labor will be investi- 
gated in the pregnant rat model. 

Dr. T -C. Chou: The major research objectives of this laboratory are the study 
of: ( 1 ) the mechanisms of action of antitumor and antiviral agents; (2) the 
biochemical and pharmacological bases for the selectivity of effects on different 
targets; and ( 3 ) the derivation of theoretical formulations for dose -effect relation- 
ships that permits the automated computer analysis of relative potency and thera- 
peutic index and facilitates the study of the interaction of multiple drugs in combi- 
nation chemotherapy. The compounds of current interest include potent 
antiherpes viral agents, a classical antifolate analog, and a lipid-soluble antifolate. 
Emphasized are pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics and preclinical toxicology, 
the determination of affinity and efficacy of drug interaction with enzymes or other 
targets, the elucidation of molecular events following the binding or incorporation 
of a drug into macromolecules, and the development of computer programs for 
drug evaluation. Currently several of the compounds mentioned above are in clin- 
ical trials. Also, software for dose-effect analysis has recently been developed for 
microcomputers. 

Dr. D. Felsen: Our laboratory is interested in the role of arachidonic acid 
metabolites (AAMs; prostaglandins, hydroxy acids and leukotrienes) and other 
mediators of inflammation in renal and hepatic function. We study the role of these 
compounds both in vivo and in vitro using a combination of techniques. These 
include measurement of renal blood flow, both isotopically and non-isotopically, 
glomerular filtration rate and other parameters of renal function (Na + and K + excre- 
tion, water excretion, etc. ). In vitro, both isolated organs and cell culture tech- 
niques are used for studies of renal and hepatic cells. With these methods, we hope 
to understand the molecular mechanisms involved in the interaction of AAMs and 
other inflammatory mediators in different models of renal and hepatic disease. 

Dr. J. J. Fox: Design and chemical syntheses of new compounds for evaluation 
as potential anticancer and/or antiviral agents; chemical sytheses designed to estab- 
lish structure-activity relationships and/or to provide substrates for collaborative 
studies on the structural specificity of key enzymes that may be involved in the 
biological activity of the drugs synthesized. Research efforts are devoted mainly 
(but not exclusively) to the syntheses of compounds related in structure to nucleic 
acid components, such as their nucleosides, and to nucleoside antibiotics or to 



56 



other Datundly-OCCUrring nucleosides bearing purines or pyrimidines or other anal- 
ogous heterocy clcs 

Dr. J. Fried: Research in this laboratory- focuses in the following areas: ( 1 ) Use 
of flow cytometry and cell sorting for cell cycle analysis, detection of cell surface 
antigens, and separation of cell types in bone marrow specimens using multipa- 
rameter gating; (2) Kinetic and quantitative factors affecting the sensitivity of 
target cells to lysis using monoclonal antibody and complement. Such factors 
include antigenicc modulation, amount of antibody bound to target antigen mole- 
cules, and antibody combinations; (3) Synergistic effects of cytotoxic drugs, and 
antibody plus complement, on viability of tumor cells in multiple myeloma; Use of 
the se agents for bone marrow purging; (4) Induction of differentiation of lympho- 
cytes to plasma cells in multiple myeloma by TPA and other compounds; (5) Use 
of myeloma cell lines as experimental models of multiple myeloma. 

Dr. C. E. Ititurrisi: Tfie objectives of this research arc to develop novel 
methods for the simultaneous quantitation of the precursers and products of 
endorphin, enkephalin and dynorphin biosynthesis. These methods, which include 
high performance liquid chromatography, tracer techniques and recombinant DNA 
technology, are being applied to studies of the role of neurogenic and hormonal 
factors and the effects of opioid agonist and antagonist drugs on opioid peptide 
biosynthesis in selected CNS tissues and in the adrenal medulla. 

Chronic treatment with opioid antagonists increases opioid binding in the 
central nervous system of rats and produces an increase in the analgesic activity of 
morphine. We are examining the functional and molecular consequences of these 
effects with respect to dosage, strain and species differences, development of toler- 
ance and dependence, and mediation at spinal and supraspinal sites. 

Clinical studies are aimed at developing pharmacologic models from patient 
data that can be used to improve analgesic therapy and provide insight into the 
quantitative aspects of the development of tolerance to opioids in these patients. 
We are studying the value of newer opioids, opioid peptides and novel routes of 
administration in the management of pain in cancer patients. 

Dr. R. Levi: The possibility that mediators of inflammation and immune hyper- 
sensitivity cause cardiac dysfunction and play a role in the pathogenesis of sudden 
death, heart attacks, and cardiac failure is under investigation in our laboratory. The 
molecular bases of the negative inotropic effect of leukotriencs platelet-activating 
factor and histamine, as well as the electrophysiological and biochemical effects of 
these mediators are being studied. Further, the relevance of complement activation 
and anaphyiatoxin generation in cardiac hypersensitivity is being investigated. The 
possible physiological role of endogenous cardiac histamine as a modulator of adre- 
nergic responses is being uncovered. The receptors mediating this histamine - 
induced modulation are being sought and the molecular mechanisms of this modu- 
lation are being assessed. 

Dr. M. Okamoto: Current research interests in this laboratory are centered on 
studies of the pharmacologic and neuropharmacologic bases of the physical 
dependence and withdrawal caused by general central nervous system depressants 
Barbiturates, benzodiazepines and alcohol are the prototype drugs for these 
studies. A quantitative methodology for the pharmacologic characterization of 
tolerance and of physical dependence on these CNS depressants in animal models 



has been perfected in this laboratory. Ongoing studies involve development of 
analytical procedures for the determination of sedative-hypnotic drugs and their 
pharmacologically active metabolites, steroids, biogenic amines, and polypeptides 
in biofluids; neuroelectrophysiologic and behavioral monitoring of acute and 
chronic drug actions, investigation of cellular mechanisms for tolerance and phys- 
ical dependence production and withdrawal hyperexcitation to these drugs. 

Dr. B. A. Otter: Research interests of this laboratory are as follows: ( 1 ) The 
synthesis of nucleosides as potential antimetabolites. Specifically, current work 
centers around the synthesis of purine-like C-nucleosides that are resistant to the 
degradative effects of nucleoside phosphorylases by virtue of the non-cleavable 
carbon-carbon anomeric bond. (2) The antitumor activity of pyrimidine deriva- 
tives. Certain pyrimidine analogs incorporating a vinyl substituent at C-6 show 
moderate levels of in vivo activity against mouse leukemias. The compounds almost 
certainly function as alkylating agents, although the mechanism of action remains 
to be determined. This program is aimed at defining structure-activity relationships. 
( 3 ) The fundamental properties of inhibitors of nucleic acid synthesis. Studies on 
the basic chemistry of nucleic acid-related monomers are of considerable impor- 
tance for improving our understanding of biochemical events at the molecular 
level. Of special interest is the role of nucleoside conformation in the specificity of 
enzyme-catalyzed reactions, an area that has not yet been exploited in the develop- 
ment of nucleoside-based drugs. 

Dr. G. W. Paternak: Our laboratory studies the biochemical and pharmacological 
properties of various subclasses of opiate receptors within the central nervous 
system. Molecular approaches include binding studies and affinity labeling of recep- 
tors using a series of irreversible opiate agonists and antagonists developed and 
synthesized in our laboratory. Our computerized quantitative autoradiographic 
studies aimed at the distribution of the various subtypes of receptors complement 
the biochemical studies. In addition to these molecular studies, we also correlate 
the biochemically defined binding subtypes with specific opiate actions, including 
analgesia, respiratory depression, gastrointestinal motility and hormone modula- 
tion, using classical pharmacological techniques. Again, the selective affinity labels 
developed in our laboratory have proven invaluable in these studies. 

Dr. M. M. Reidenberg: One of the major questions in clinical pharmacology is: 
Why do different people react differently to the same dose of the same drug? Our 
program in clinical pharmacology addresses this question in a number of ways. We 
have learned how genetically controlled rates of drug metabolism alter dose- 
response. We have systematically studied how decreasing kidney function modifies 
drug action. The information gained from these studies has been incorporated into 
the mainstream of medicine and therapeutics. 

A class of patients who appear to have a high frequency of adverse drug reac- 
tions and for whom only limited knowledge about drug response exists is the 
elderly. This group is our current focus of interest since we think systemic study of 
drug action in the elderly will produce knowledge that will improve therapeutics 
for this group of patients. Specific studies to learn about how aging affects drug 
metabolism, drug excretion and tissue sensitivity to drugs are done to gain informa- 
tion that can then be used to individualize therapy for elderly people as well as 
shed light on the process of aging itself. 



58 



Dr. A. B. Rifkind: Our laboratory is investigating the biochemical changes by 
which polychlorinated biphenyls dioxins and chemically related compounds (poly 
halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons, or PAH) lead to tissue injury and death. We 
are interested in PAH action with respect to both the mechanisms of toxicity and 
the regulation of gene expression. We are using a chick embryo model as our 
primary system and the incidence of mortality, subcutaneous and pericardial edema 
formation, loss of thymus weight and impaired cardiac contractile responses to 
catecholamines, as indices of toxicity. It has been established that toxic PAH 
congeners activate the Ah receptor which, in turn, controls the expression of a 
group of gene products including a form of cytochrome P-450 known as cytoch- 
rome P-448. Evidence from our laboratory and others indicates that induction of 
hepatic cytochrome P-448 mediated mixed function oxidase activity regularly 
accompanies PAH toxicity but does not cause the toxicity. We are currently investi- 
gating ( 1 ) the relationship of changes in extrahepatic mixed function oxidase 
activity to toxic changes; (2) effects of PAH on arachidonic acid metabolism and 
how those changes relate to toxicity; and (3) the biochemical changes accompa- 
nying the decreased cardiac contractile response to catecholamines produced by 
PAH treatment of the chick embryo. 

Dr. F. M. Sirotnak: Our research focuses on ( 1 ) molecular targets and other 
cellular biochemical determinants important to selective antitumor action of 
various categories of cytotoxic antimetabolites; ( 2 ) cytoplasmic membrane trans- 
port of pharmacologic agents; (3) molecular mechanisms of acquired resistance of 
tumor cells to antineoplastic agents; and (4) the regulation of folate and nucleo- 
side transporter gene expression 

Folates play a crucial role in the biosynthesis of macromolecules. Access of 
tumor cells to exogenous plasma folate is made possible by the existence in the 
cytoplasmic membrane of a specific high-affinity transport system. 

Using c-DNA probes, the genetic regulation and molecular biology of this 
system are now being examined in models which constitutively over-produce or 
under produce the transport protein and during induction of tumor cells to 
terminal maturation. 

Folate and nucleoside analogs effectively accumulate in tumor cells via plasma 
membrane systems normally transporting natural folates and nucleosides. Toward 
our understanding of the selective antitumor action of folate and nucleoside 
analogs, we are examining the properties and multiplicity of their cellular 
membrane transport, their interaction with enzymic and macromolecular targets, 
their intracellular metabolic dispostion and their pharmacokinetic behavior. Mech- 
anisms of acquired resistance in tumor cells to these antimetabolites and other 
cytoxic agents at the level of their cellular membrane transport are also studied by 
the investigation of alterations. 

Dr. H. H. Szeto. Our laboratory is interested in studying the effe cts of prenatal 
drug exposure on the development of the central nervous system. We are particu- 
larly interested in the development of sleep-wake behavior and the regulation of 
breathing in the fetus and neonate. As such investigations cannot be carried out in 
human, we are using the fetal lamb as an animal model. I'sing techniques that 
permit continuous intrauterine recording of fetal electrocortical activity, eye move- 
ments, postural muscle activity, and diaphragmatic activity, we have found tht acute 



59 



prenatal exposure to opiates and benzodiazepines can alter fetal behavioral and 
breathing activity. We are now examining the effects of chronic opiate exposure on 
the maturation of sleep-wake behavior and respiration control. 

We are also studying the effects of maternal marijuana smoking on the fetus by 
introducing marijuana smoke into the maternal trachea and monitoring its effects 
on maternal and fetal neurobehavior, hemodynamics, metabolism and hormonal 
regulation. 

In addition, we have used a variety of pharmacologic agents to investigate the 
role of various neurotransmitters and neuromodulators that may potentially be 
involved in the regulation of sleep-wake behavior and respiratory control in the 
fetus. 

Dr. K. A. Watanabe: We are interested in synthetic photochemistry to enzyme 
reaction mechanisms. Major emphasis is on the chemical design and development 
of better anticancer and antiviral agents which interfere with selective DNA metab- 
olism. On the basis of a biological and biochemical rationale, various sites on the 
molecules of natural substances and synthetic derivatives with biological activities 
are chemically modified so that these new molecules may inhibit specific enzyme 
reaction(s). Our recent discoveries of novel carbohydrate reactions have resulted 
in the development of potent antiviral N-nucleosides. The novel heterocyclic chem- 
istry discovered in our laboratory has been employed in the development of C- 
nucleosides with potent anticancer activity. Also, our heterocyclic reactions have 
been applied to the preparation of anticancer antifolates. We have also proposed 
plausible mechanisms of action for tryptophan oxidizing enzyme and cytidine 
deaminase, on the basis of studies using simple chemically modified substrates. 

Recent Publications 

Chan, W. Y, Uterine and placental prostaglandins and their modulation of oxytocin sensitivity and 
contractility in the parturient uterus. Biol. Reprod. 29:680-688, 1983- 

Chan, W. Y. (with Powell, A. ML, Alvine, P., and Litt, I. F ), Menstrual PFG; a , PGE : and TXA 2 in normal 
and dysmenorrhea women and their temporal relationship to dysmenorrhea. Prostaglandins 

29:273-290, 1985. 

Chou, T-C. (with Lopez, C, Calacino, J. M., Feinberg, A., Watanabe, K. A., Fox, J. J., and Philips, F. S.), 
Metabolic competition studies of 2'-fluoro-5-iodo-l-/3-D-arabinofuranosylcytosein in Vero cells 
and herpes simplex type 1 -infected. Mol. Pharmacol. 26:587-593, 1984. 

Chou, T-C. (with Talalay, P.), Quantitative analysis of dose-effect relationships: The combined effects of 
multiple drugs or enzyme inhibitors. Adv. Enzyme Regulation 22:27-55, 1984. 

Felsen, D. (with Weisman, S. M., and Vaughan, E. D , Jr.), Platelet-activating factor is a potent stimulus 
for renal prostaglandin synthesis: Possible significance in unilateral ureteral obstruction. J. Phar- 
macol. Exp. Ther. 235:10-15, 1985. 

Felsen, D. (with Weisman, S. M., and Vaughan, E. D, Jr.), The effect of sodium intake on renal prosta- 
glandin production (42265). Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 181:357-363, 1986. 

Fox, J.J. (with Mar, EC, Patel, P. C, Cheng, Y-C, Watanabe, K. A., and Huang, E-S), Effects of certain 
nucleoside analogues on human cytomegalovirus replication in vitro. J. Gen. Virol. 65:47-53, 
1984. 

Fox, J. J. (with Merluzzi, V. J., and Last-Barney, L ), Comparison of 2'-fluoro-arabinosylpyrimidine nucleo- 
sides and l-/J-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine on immunological parameters in vitro. Int. J. Immuno- 
pharmacol. 5:421-425, 1984. 



60 



Fried, J. (with Nishibari. M , Hansen, H . Jhanwar. S. C, Sordillo, R, Kozincr, B., Uoyd, K.. and Clarkson, 
B ), Establishment of a near tetraploid B cell lymphoma cell line with duplication of the 8; 14 
translocation Cancer (ienci Cytogenet. 12:39-50, 1984. 

lnturrisi, C E. (with Yoburn. B C , Goodman, R. R.. Cohen. A. H., and Pasternak, G. W. ), Increased anal 
gesk potency of mt)rphine and increased brain opioid binding sites in the rat following chronic 
naltrexone treatment. Life Sci, 36:2325-2332, 1985 

lnturrisi, C. E. (with Colburn, W. A.), Application of pharmacokinctic-pharmac<>dynamic modeling to 
analgesia. In: Advances in Pain Research and llyertifiy. Vol. 8, K. M. Foley and C. E. lnturrisi, eds. 
Raven Press, New York, pp. 441-452, 1986. 

Levi, R (with Hachfcld del Balzo, I' . and Policy, M. J ), Cardiac dysfunction caused by purified human 
C3a anaphylatoxin Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., U.SA. 82:886-890. 1985 

Levi, R (with Wolff. A A ). Histamine and cardiacc arrhythmias. Ore. Res 58:1-16, 1986. 

Ok.imoto. M.. Barbiturate tolerance and physical dependence: Contribution of pharmacological factors. 
In: Mechanisms <>/ Tolerance and Dependence. NIDA Research Monograph Series 54:333-347, 
1985 

Okamoto, M ( with Rao, S. N., Aaronson, L M., and Vi alcwski, J L ). Fthanol drug interaction with chlor 
diazepoxide and pentobarbital. Alcoholism: Clin, and Exp. Res 9:5 16-521, 1985. 

Otter B A ( with Gagnicr, R. P., and Halat. M. J ), Synthesis and NMR studies of some imidazo [4,5-d]- 
pvndazinc nucleosides J Heterocyclic Chem 21:481 489. 1984. 

Rasternak, G \X (with ling, G. S. F„ Spiegel, K., and [.ockhart, S. H. ), Separation of opioid analgesia from 
respiratory depression: Evidence for different receptor mechanisms. J. Pharmacol. Exp Thcr. 
232:149-155, 1985 

Pasternak. G \V (with Wood, P. L), Multiple mu opiate receptors. Life Sciences 38:1889-1898, 1986. 

Reidenberg, M. M. (with Aucoin. D. P., Peterson. M. E„ Hurwitz, A. I . Drayer, D. E„ Lahita, R. G., and 
Quimbv. F Vt ), Propvlthiouracil-induced immune mediated disease in cats. J. Pharmacol. Exp. 
Ther. 234:13-18, 1985 

Reidenberg, M M., Kidney function and drug action. New Eng. J. Med 313 816 818, 1985 

Rifkind, A. B ( wiht Hattori. Y., lx'\i, R. Hughes. M J . Quilley, C . and Alonso, D R. ). The chick embryo 
as a model for I'CB and dioxin toxicity: Evidence of cardiotoxicity and increased prostaglandin 
synthesis In: Hatihury Re[x>rt 1H BiologicaJ Mechanisms of Dioxin Action. A. Poland and R 
Kimhrough, eds ("old Spring Harbour Press, 1984, pp 255-266. 

Rifkind. A. B (with Quilley, C. P.), Prostaglandin release by the chick em bry o heart is increased by 

2,3.7.8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and by other cytochrome P-448 inducers. Biochem. Biophys. 
Res. Commun. 136:582-589. 1986 

Sirotnak, F. M. (with Yang, C-H., and Dcmbo, M. ), Interaction between anions and the reduced folate/ 
methotrexate transport system in 1.1210 cell plasma membrane vesicles Directional symmetry 
and anion specificity for differential mobility of loaded and unloaded carrier | Membr. Biol. 
79:285-292, 1984. 

Sirotnak, F. M.(with Moccio. D. M., and Yang. C-H. ), A novel class of genetic variants of the LI 2 10 cell 
up-regulated for folate analogue transport inward Isolation, characterization and degree of meta- 
bolic instability of the system. J. Biol. Chem 259 131-1 J9, 1984. 

Szeto, H. H. (with Hinman, D.J. ), Prenatal development of sleep wake patterns in sheep Sleep 8:34" 
355. 1985 

Szeto, H. H. ( with Ahrams, R. M., Cook, C. E.. Davis, K. H.. Niederreither, K... and Jaeger. M J ), Plasma 
9-tetrahydrocannabinol in pregnant sheep and fetus after inhalation of smoke from a marijuana 
cigarette Alcohol and Drug Research 6:361-369, 1986 

Watanabe. K. A. (with Su, T-L, Reichman. V . Greenberg, N . Uipcz, C . and Fox. J J ), Nucleosides. 129. 
Synthesis of antiviral nucleosides: 5-alkenv I- 1 ( 2-deoxy 2-fluoro fi I) arabinofuranosyl ) uracils. J. 
Med. Chem. 27:91-94. 1984. 

Vtatanabc, K A. (with Su, T-L. Pankiewicz, K. Vt . and Harada. C), Novel ring transformation reactions 
and their applications to the synthesis of potential anticancer heterocyclic compounds Hctcrocy 
cles 2 1 289- 307, 1984 



61 



Requirements and Course 
Offerings 



63 



Admission 



Applications 

For admission to the Graduate School of 
Medical Sciences an applicant must ( l ) 
have a baccalaureate degree or the equfva 
lent from a college or university of recog- 
nized standing. ( 2 ) have adequate prepara- 
tion in the chosen field of study, and ( 3 I 
show promise of ability to pursue adv anced 
study and research. as judged by his or her 
previous record. 

Inquiries about graduate study should be 
addressed to the Associate Dean of the 
Graduate Sc hool of Medical Sciences, 1300 
York Avenue, New York, NY 10021 or to 
the Associate Director of the Sloan- 
Kettering Division. 1 2~"i York Avenue, New 
York, NY 10021. 

Candidates may be admitted in 
September, February, or July, although 
places in the graduate program for February 
and July may not be av ailable because of 
prior commitments to applicants for 
September admission. Applicants for 
February or July admission should corre- 
spond directly with the respective Field 
Director in the Medical College Division or 
the Associate Director of the Sloan- 
Kettering Division regarding the availability 
of places. 

Application material must be completed 
and returned to the Office of the Graduate 
School of Medical Sciences together with 
( 1 ) official transcripts of records from all 
colleges and universities attended, (2) a 
statement of purpose of graduate study, and 
( 3 ) two letters of recommendation from 
individuals in academic positions who 
know the applicant professionally In addi- 
tion, scores from the Graduate Record 
Examinations (GRF) are usually required to 
aid in the evaluation of an applicant. Appli 
cation for taking the Aptitude ( Verbal, 
Quantitative and Analytical ) Test and the 
Advanced Test of the GRF. must be made 
directly to the 

Educational Testing Service 
Graduate Record Examinations 
Box 955 

Princeton, NJ 08541 

The proper Institution Code Number to 
use in your GRF application for the Cornell 



University Graduate sc hool of Medical 

Sciences ( New York < aty ) is R 2 1 19-6. 

Applications for September or July admis- 
sion and all credentials, including official 
transcripts of records from all colleges and 
universities attended, must be received bv 
the deadline of March I. 

Applications and credentials for February 
admission must be received by Novembe r I 

Application fee. A nonrefundable 
charge of $3^ is made for tiling an applica- 
tion for admission. 

The completed application and all 
supporting documents are initially screened 
by the credentials committee of the 
program to which the student is applying. 
Applicants who are considered potentially 
acc eptable are usually called for a personal 
interview. At the time of interview, after 
discussing his or her interests with the 
members of the Field or Unit, the applicant 
may tentatively select a major sponsor. If 
accepted by the Field or Unit, an applica- 
tion is forwarded to the interdivisional 
Credentials Review Committee and then to 
the Dean for final decision. A student is 
formally notified of acceptance for study in 
the Graduate School of Medical Sciences by 
a letter from the Dean. An applicant 
accepted for admission is requested to 
inform the Graduate School of Medical 
Sc iences of her or his plan to either accept 
or refuse the offer of admission within one- 
month after the Dean's acceptance letter 
has been received. 

It is the policy of Cornell University to 
ac tively support equality of educational and 
employment opportunity. No person shall 
be denied admission to any educational 
program or activity or be denied employ- 
ment on the basis of any legally prohibited 
discrimination involving, but not limited to. 
such factors as race, color, creed, religion, 
national or ethnic origin, sex. age. or 
handicap. The University is committed to 
the maintenance of affirmative action 
programs which will assure the continua- 
tion of such equalitv of opportunity 

Admission policies arc also in conformity 
with the policy of New York State in regard 
to the American ideal ol equalitv of oppor- 
tune as embodied In the Education Pnu 
dees Act 



65 



Categories 

An applicant is accepted by the Graduate 
School of Medical Sciences ( 1 ) as a degree 
candidate for the M.S. or Ph.D., or ( 2 ) as a 
provisional candidate. 

Provisional candidacy provides opportu- 
nity for a prospective degree candidate, 
whose educational preparation is difficult 
to evaluate, to begin graduate studies. On 
the basis of the record of accomplishment 
in the first half of the academic year, the 
adviser or temporary Special Committee of 
a provisional candidate may recommend to 
the Dean that ( 1 ) provisional candidacy be 
changed to degree candidacy, ( 2 ) provi- 
sional candidacy be continued for the 
remainder of the academic year, or ( 3 ) 
provisional candidacy be terminated. A 
maximum of one academic year in the 
status of provisional candidacy is permitted 
and credit of a maximum of one residence 
unit may be allowed on petition, provided 
there is convincing evidence that perfor- 
mance has been of the same quality as that 
required of degree candidates. 

Special Students 

Special students are students who are not 
degree candidates in either the Graduate 
School of Medical Sciences or the Medical 
College and who are given permission by 
the respective dean to take courses at 
either school. Special students must be 
degree candidates at other institutions and 
the courses taken at Cornell must be essen- 
tial to their degree programs and are not 
offered by the institutions at which they are 
matriculated as degree candidates as certi- 
fied by the institutions. Enrollment as a 
special student is not intended as prepara- 
tion for admission to degree programs at 
Cornell or elsewhere. 

In the case of the Graduate School of 
Medical Sciences, special students are 
accepted only with the approval of the 
appropriate Field Director in the Medical 
College Division or of the appropriate 
Chairperson in the Sloan-Kettering Division 
Special students must demonstrate special 
qualifications in terms of preparation and 
ability. They must register with the Grad- 
uate School of Medical Sciences or in the 
Medical College and must pay all tuition 
and fees before being permitted to attend 
lectures or laboratory sessions. Tuition is 



computed on the basis of the ratio of 
course hours taken to the total hours of 
instruction for the academic year (33 
weeks of 40 hours). There is a registration 
fee of $35. 

Degree Requirements 

Major and Minor Fields* 

A candidate for the degree of Master of 
Science is required to register for study in 
one major and one minor field. Each field 
decides whether the Special Committee of 
a candidate for the Ph.D. degree must have 
two or three fields represented. Accord- 
ingly, a candidate for the degree of Doctor 
of Philosophy is required to register for 
study in one major and one or two minor 
fields. At least one of the minors must be 
outside the area of the major field. 

The Special Committee 

The general degree requirements of the 
Graduate School of Medical Sciences are 
minimal in order to give maximum flexi- 
bility in choosing a desirable program of 
study. The student's program is determined 
with the aid and direction of a Special 
Committee, consisting of at least three 
faculty members chosen by the student 
from those fields that best fit his or her 
areas of interest. Satisfactory progress 
toward a degree is judged by the committee 
rather than by arbitrary standards imposed 
by the Graduate School of Medical Sciences. 
There are no regulations of the Faculty of 
the Graduate School of Medical Sciences 
governing the specific content of instruc- 
tion, courses, or grades to which the 
Special Committee must subscribe, except 
those imposed by the fields. The committee 
is primarily responsible for the candidate's 
development as an independent scholar and 
scientist. 

No later than four weeks after enroll- 
ment, a candidate must file a statement of 
the major and minor fields elected for 



'Areas of concentration towards a degree at the Cornell 
University Graduate School of Medical Sciences are 
referred to as Fields in the Medical College Division and 
as Units in the Sloan-Kettering Division. Both these 
terms, as well as the Interdivisional Programs, are 
intended to be covered by the term field in this and 
subsequent sections. 



66 



st ulI\ after which the student must choose 
faculty members to represent the Gelds and 
to serve on a Special Committee The major 
sponsor usualrj advises the student 
concerning the Other selections and c hairs 
the committee. At least one member of the 
committee must represent a field different 
from the candidate's major field. Members 
may agree to sen t temporarily during the 
candidate's first year of residence until the 
candidate has had the opportunity to 
become acquainted with areas of research 
in the fields of his or her choice. On 
completion of this year of residence, a 
permanent Special Committee will In- 
formed, the membership of w hich can be 
changed w ith agreement of all members of 
the old and new ly formed committees and 
tin approval of the Dean. The members of 
the Special Committee decide on the 
Student's program of study and research, 
and judge whether progress toward a 
degree is satisfactory After consulting the 
other members, the chairperson of tin 
Special Committee prepares term reports 
on the candidate for submission to the 
Dean The members of the committee serve 
on all the candidate's examining commit- 
tees and they approve his or her thesis. 

Registration and Course 
Grades 

No student in the Graduate School of 
Medical Sciences may double-register for an 
advanced general or professional degree 
with any other school or college except the 
Cornell University Medical College. 

At the beginning of each term, students 
are required to register w ith the Office of 
the Graduate School of Medical Sciences 
and to file a registration of courses form 
indicating all courses they w ill take A fee of 
$10 is charged for late registration. 

At the beginning of each course in w hich 
the student is enrolling, the student will 
complete a separate course registration 
form for the instructor All courses for 
which the student registers tor credit will 
be entered in the official record. Grades ol 
graduate students are reported as Excellent 
(E), Satisfactory (S), Unsatisfactory (U), 
Incomplete ( I ), Absent ( Abs. ), or Unoffi- 
cially Withdrawn (W). A grade of Incom- 
plete or Absent cannot be changed later 
than one term following the one in which 
the course w as taken. 



Registration for the summer is required 
of graduate students w ho w ill be engaged 
in research 

Residence 

The Faculty of the Graduate School of 
Medical Sciences regards study in residence 
as essential. Each candidate for an advanced 
general degree is expected to complete the 
residence requirements with reasonable 
continuity A student must register each 
term from the time of his or her first regis- 
tration in the Graduate School of Medical 
Sciences until the student either withdraws 
or completes a degree ( unless a leave of 
absence has been granted). Full-time study 
for one-half academic year with satisfactory 
accomplishment constitutes one residence 
unit. Two units of residence are the 
minimal requirement for the master's 
degree and six units are the minimum for 
the doctoral degree. However, the time 
necessary to obtain the degree generally 
exceeds the minimal requirements. A candi- 
date for the Ph.D. degree must spend two 
of the last four units of required residence 
in successive terms on the New York City 
or the Ithaca campus of Cornell University. 
No more than seven years may intervene 
between the time of first registration and 
the completion of all requirements for the 
doctoral degree. A student must complete 
all requirements for the master's degree in 
four years. 

Fart-time graduate study, if it is necessi- 
tated by off-campus employment noncon- 
tributory to the major field of study, is not 
encouraged. Requests for part-time study 
must be reviewed by the Executive 
Committee. If permission is granted for 
pan-time study, the student must be in resi- 
dence at least half-time. 

The legislation with respect to eligi- 
bility of part-time students for residence 
units is as follows 



67 



Employment 


Residence Units Allowable Per Half Academic Year 


1 ULCll 


Contributory in 


Noncontributory; 


Off Campus 


cinch hours 


major field; 


on campus 




per aw* 


on campus 






0-10 hours 


1 unit 


1 unit 


V4 unit 


11-20 hours 


1 unit 


% unit 


3 /4 unit 


21-30 hours 


3 A unit (teaching) 


V2 unit 






%-l unit (research)' 







'Time spent assisting in research, if it is contributory to 
the major field of study, shall be credited toward allow- 
ance of a full residence unit. 



Transfer of Residence 
Credit 

No residence credit will be granted for 
study outside the Graduate School of 
Medical Sciences to fulfill the requirements 
of the M.S. degree. No commitment can be 
made about granting residence credit 
toward the Ph.D. requirements for previous 
study in another graduate school until after 
the candidate has entered into residence at 
the Graduate School of Medical Sciences. At 
that time, the student's Special Committee 
may recommend acceptance of study 
outside the Graduate School of Medical 
Sciences to the Executive Committee, 
which will determine the number of resi- 
dence units to be awarded. No credit can 
be transferred for study undertaken as an 
undergraduate or as a special student even 
in courses designed for graduate students. 

A student who has satisfactorily 
completed two or more academic years of 
study toward the degree of M.D. at the 
Cornell University Medical College, or 
another accredited medical school in the 
United States with a curriculum equivalent 
to that of the Cornell University Medical 
College, may transfer a maximum of two 
units of residence credit after passing an 
evaluation examination administered by a 
committee appointed by the Executive 
Committee of the Graduate School of 
Medical Sciences. 

Summer Research 

Registration is required for the summer 
research term whether or not this effort 
will be credited toward residence unit 
accumulation. Students registered for 
summer research pay prorated tuition only 



if they are obtaining residence credit. 
However, no degree candidate is eligible 
for more than two residence units in any 
period of twelve consecutive months. 

Study In Absentia 

A candidate for the degree of Doctor of 
Philosophy may petition for permission to 
earn residence units for study away from 
Cornell University while regularly regis- 
tered in the Graduate School of Medical 
Sciences. A candidate to whom this privi- 
lege has been granted, must register as a 
Candidate in absentia and may work 
temporarily under the immediate supervi- 
sion of an individual designated by his or 
her Special Committee although the candi- 
date's program will continue to be directed 
by the Committee. For study in absentia, 
not more than two residence units may be 
earned toward fulfillment of the minimal 
residence requirements for the Ph.D. 
degree. 

Leave of Absence 

A candidate who finds it necessary to inter- 
rupt the continuity of his or her residence 
must petition the Dean for an official leave 
of absence. This written petition must 
specify the term of absence, state the 
reason for the requested leave of absence, 
and be approved by the student's Special 
Committee. 

A student who will not be in residence 
but will return to the Graduate School of 
Medical Sciences to present and defend a 
thesis at the final examination, having 
completed all requirements for a degree 
except for the final examination, must peti- 
tion for a leave of absence. 



68 



Examinations 

Three examinations arc required by the 
Faculty or the Graduate Sc hool of Medical 
Sciences: ( 1 ) Final Fxamination for the M S 
degree. ( 2 ) Fxamination for Admission to 
Doctoral Candidacy, and (3) Final Fxamina 
tion for the Ph.D. degree Examinations are 
administered by an Fxamining Committee 
consisting of a chairperson appointed by 
the Dean, the members of the candidate's 
Special Committee, and. in the case of the 
Admission to Doctoral Candidacy Fxamina- 
tion. three additional members selected 
from the Faculty of the Graduate School of 
Medical Sciences and/or of other institu- 
tions. In addition to these examinations, the 
candidate s major field may require a quali- 
fying examination as part of its evaluation of 
the candidate alter two units of residence 
have been completed. 

For the M.S. degree: The Final Fxamina- 
tion may be oral or both oral and written. 

For the Ph.D. degree: The Admission to 
Doc toral Candidacy Fxamination is both 
oral and written and certifies that the 
Student is eligible to present a thesis to the 
Faculty of the Graduate School of Medical 
Sciences. The examination should be taken 
after course work is largely finished but 
before significant thesis research has begun. 
Accordingly, the usual examination time 
w ill be at the end of the second year of resi- 
dence The examination may not be taken 
until two units of residence credit have 
been accumulated and a minimum of two 
units of residence credit is required after 
passing this examination before the final 
examination can be scheduled. The final 
examination for the Ph.D. degree is an oral 
defense of the candidate's thesis It must be 
passed within four years after completion of 
the required residence units, or within 
seven \cars from the date of first registra- 
tion, whichever is earlier. 

Foreign Language 
Requirements 

Fach field of stud) has its own foreign 
language requirements Die student's 
Special Committee ma\ require knowledge 
of foreign languages beyond the require- 
ments of the fields listed in this 
\nn()Unccnit'Tit. 

Arrangements for a foreign language- 
examination will be made on application to 



the Office of the Dean As an alternative to 

tins examination, the candidate ma) 
demonstrate proficiency by having passed 
the reading part of the language qualifica- 
tion tests administered b) the College 
Entrance Fxamination board. 

Thesis 

A principal requirement for both the M.S. 
and the Ph D degrees is the presentation of 
a thesis constituting an imaginative contri 
button to know ledge Ordinarily, the thesis 
is w ritten on a research topic in the candi- 
date s major Geld of study, under the direc- 
tion of the chairperson of his or her Special 
Committee. The faculty requires that the 
Ph.D. thc-sis be published in abstract and be 
recorded on microfilm. 

Tuition and Fees 
Tuition 

Tuition for a student regularly matriculated 
in the Graduate School of Medical Sciences 
is $10,950 for the academic year 1986 -87 
and is payable in two equal parts, the first of 
which is due at initial registration. Tuition 
includes fees for matriculation, hospitaliza- 
tion insurance, graduation, and miscel- 
laneous thesis expenses. 

For students who ( 1 ) have been in 
continuous residence at Cornell in the 
same doctoral program and have accumu- 
lated four units of residence credit, ( 2 ) 
have passed their Admission to Doctoral 
Candidacy Fxamination, and ( 3 ) are not 
taking courses in the Medical College 
curriculum, a reduced charge of f 1 800 per 
annum ($900 per semester) will be made 
for tuition and fees for the terms subse- 
quent to the Admission to Doctoral Candi- 
dacy Fxamination. For those students who 
are accepted in the Ph.D.-M.D. Program 
(see p. 4) and will continue to take courses 
in the medical curriculum, an additional 
tuition charge, based on the Medical 
College tuition ($1 5,554 per annum), will 
be made for the medical course hours 
taken. 

A student who is to receive partial resi 
dence credit (see p. 67) because of 
employment should apply for proration of 
tuition on forms obtainable .it the Office of 
the Dean Proration of tuition does not 
apply to the special reduced tuition of $900 
per semester 



69 



Other Fees 

In Absentia A student registered in 
absentia pays a fee of $200 each term and 
may continue hospitalization insurance by 
payment of the annual premium directly to 
the Student Accounting Office. If students 
in absentia take advantage of local privi- 
leges, such as the use of the library, desk 
space, Student Health Service, and Cornell 
housing, the fee is $400 per semester. The 
latter fee also covers hospitalization 
insurance. 

Leave of Absence Students on leave of 
absence will be required to pay an active- 
file fee of $200 for each semester, up to a 
maximum of six semesters, during which 
they are not registered with the Graduate 
School. This fee will not be subject to 
finance charges but must be paid before the 
student can receive an advanced degree. 
Petition for waiver of this fee will be 
considered for students who have not 
completed the required number of resi- 
dence units. 

Candidate for Degree Only A graduate 
student who has previously fulfilled all 
other degree requirements, who has been 
granted a leave of absence, and then returns 
to the Graduate School of Medical Sciences 
to present a thesis and to take the final 
examination must register as a Candidate 
for Degree Only and pay a fee of $35. 

Any individual who owes money to the 
University will not be allowed to register or 
reregister in the University, receive a tran- 
script of his or her record, have his or her 
academic credits certified, be granted a 
leave of absence, or have a degree 
conferred. 

The amount, time, and manner of 
payment of tuition, fees, or other charges 
may be changed at any time without 
notice. 

Refiinds 

Part of the personally paid tuition will be 
refunded if the student obtains official certi- 
fication of leave of absence or withdrawal 
from the Graduate School of Medical 
Sciences during the semester. Students who 
terminate their registration during a regular 
term in this manner will be charged tuition 
from the registration day to the effective 
date of the certificate as follows: first week, 



10 percent; second week, 20 percent; third 
week, 30 percent; fourth week, 40 percent; 
fifth week, 60 percent; sixth week, 80 
percent; seventh week, 1 00 percent. No 
charge will be made if the effective date of 
leave or withdrawal is within the first six 
days of the term, including registration day. 

Financial Assistance 

All applicants to the Graduate School are 
requested to submit a Graduate and Profes- 
sional School Financial Aid Service 
(GAPSFAS) form providing an estimate of 
financial need. The information will be used 
in two ways: The number of students with 
documentable need will allow the Univer- 
sity to obtain maximum federal funding for 
loans and work-study purposes, and the 
specific need of an applicant may be used 
to determine that individual's graduate 
support. Please obtain the necessary form, 
available at your college or university finan- 
cial aid office and from the Educational 
Testing Service. File the form with the 
Educational Testing Service, Box 2614, 
Princeton, New Jersey 0854 1 , and request 
that the information be sent to Cornell- 
Code 2267. 

Financial assistance is available to quali- 
fied applicants. Individual fields may offer 
predoctoral research fellowships, research 
assistantships, or teaching assistantships. 
These positions may provide a stipend in 
addition to tuition. Information about these 
positions may be obtained directly from the 
Field or Unit at the time of application. 

Nationwide competitive predoctoral 
fellowships are available from the National 
Science Foundation and the National 
Research Council. Information about these 
fellowships should be requested directly 
from the appropriate governmental agency. 

New York State residents are eligible for 
several predoctoral fellowships and the 
Tuition Assistance Program, which assists in 
tuition payments. Application forms may be 
obtained from the New York Higher Educa- 
tion Services Corporation, Student Financial 
Aid Section, Tower Building, Empire State 
Plaza, Albany, NY 12255. 

Several loan programs are available to 
graduate students. Under these programs, 
repayment of the principal amount of the 
loan together with the interest on the loan 
may be deferred until after graduation. 
Complete information regarding loan 



70 



programs may be obtained from the Grad- 
uate Sc hool Office. 

Opportunity for part-time employment is 
often available in departmental research 
projects or other activities Applications 
should be made directly to individual 
departments. 

The Graduate School of Medical Sc iences 
participates in the Work-Study Program of 
Cornell University which provides a signifi- 
cant salary contribution for qualified 
employed students. 

Scholarships and 
Fellowships 

l ull fellowships are provided for graduate- 
students by both the Medical College and 
Sloan-Kettering Divisions of the Graduate 
Sc hool of Medical Sc iences Recipients of 
this award become PhD. Fellows and will 
receive a full tuition scholarship and a 
stipend covering living expenses. 

A number of tuition scholarships are 
available for students in the Medical 
College Division who are not covered by 
one of the above fellowships. This scholar- 
ship fund is administered by the Office of 
the Dean of the Graduate School of Medical 
Sciences. 

In addition, the following named funds 
provide support for selected students: 

The Vincent Astor Scholarship Fund. 

Funds for tuition assistance are also derived 
from the income from a generous gift by 
the Vincent Astor Foundation to the Grad- 
uate School of Medical Sciences and to the 
Medical College. Allocation of these funds 
for graduate student tuition assistance is 
made at the disc retion of the Dean of the 
Graduate Sc hool of Medical Sciences. 

The Harry E. Gould, Sr., Medical and 
Graduate Student Scholarship. This fund 
was established by Mr. Gould's son, Harry F. 
Gould, Jr., in memory of his father, a promi- 
nent business and civic leader in the City of 
New York, who had a long-standing interest 
in medicine. The income from this endow 
ment provides financial assistance for 
students of the Medical College and Grad- 
uate School of Medical Sciences 

The Mildred and Emil Holland Scholar- 
ship. Income from a gift by the Fmil and 
Mildred Holland Philanthropic Fund of the 



Jewish Communal Fund is used to provide 
tuition support for an M.D.-Ph.D. student 

The W. A. Keck Foundation Medical 
Scientist Fellowship. This aw ard is 
derived from a generous endowment 
awarded to Cornell University Medical 
College and prov ides support for an M.D.- 
Ph.D student 

The Francis L. Loeb Medical Scientist 
Fellowships. These fellowships have been 
endowed by a gift from Francis L. Loeb and 
provide support for two M.D.-Ph.D. 
students at the Cornell University Medical 
College. 

The Frank R. and Blanche A. Mowrer 
Memorial Fund. Financial assistance is 
av ailable from the income of this fund to 
one student each year enrolled in the Ph.D - 
M.D. or M.D.-Ph.D. program. 

The Papanicolaou Medical Scientist 
Fellowship is funded by income from a 
bequest from Mary G. Papanicolaou in 
memory of her husband, Dr. George N. 
Papanicolaou, and by a gift from an anony- 
mous donor to the Cornell University 
Medical College. The funds provide support 
for an M.D.-Ph.D. student. 

The Abby Rockefeller Mauze Medical 
Sc ientist Fellowship was established by a 
gift from the Abby Rockefeller Mauze Trust. 
The income provides fellowship support for 
an M.D.-Ph.D. student 

The Surdna Foundation Medical Scien- 
tist Fellowship was made possible by a 
generous grant to the Medical College by 
the Surdna Foundation. The income from 
this endowment provides fellowship 
support for an M.D.-Ph.D. student. 

Awards and Prizes 

The Julian R. Rachele Prize. The income 
of a fund established by Dr. Julian R. 
Rachele. former Dean of the Cornell Univer- 
sity 1 Graduate Sc hool of Medical Sciences 
provides for an annual prize to be awarded 
to a candidate tor the Ph.D degree tor a 
researc h paper of which the candidate is 
the sole or the senior author 

Recipient of the prize in 1986 was 
beat rice Knudsen. 



"I 



The Vincent duVigneaud Prizes for the 

presentation of outstanding papers by 
students of the Cornell University Graduate 
School of Medical Sciences at the Annual 
Vincent duVigneaud Memorial Research 
Symposium. 

Recipients of these awards in 1986 were 
Alice Brock, Deborah L. Jenkins, Rose 
Shaffer, and Mark Underwood. 

The Frank Lappin Horsfall Jr. Award is 

endowed by funds provided in memory of 
Dr. Horsfall by his many friends and family. 
It is continued evidence of his concern for 
students manifest during his directorship of 
the Sloan-Kettering Division. 

The award is made annually to a student 
of the Sloan-Kettering Division, who in the 
opinion of the Committee of the Faculty of 
the Sloan-Kettering Division, has been most 
distinguished, especially in the Admission 
to Doctoral Candidacy Examination. 

Recipient of the award in 1986 was 
Madge Kanter. 

The Thesis Prizes are awarded to students 
of the Medical College Division who have 
presented an outstanding thesis during the 
academic year. 

Recipients of these prizes in 1985-86 
were Deborah Klein and William Lee. 

Student Health Services 

The Student Health Plan of Cornell Univer- 
sity Medical College provides hospitaliza- 
tion and major medical insurance for all 
registered graduate students. In addition, 
the Plan provides for ambulatory care at the 
Personnel Health Service of The New York 
Hospital-Cornell Medical Center. Physicians 
at the Health Service will refer students 
who require specialized care to clinics of 
the Hospital and to attending physicians of 
the staff. 

The cost of medical services provided by 
the Plan are included in the tuition and fee 
structure announced by the Graduate 
School of Medical Sciences each academic 
year. Students will be issued Plan member- 
ship cards and will receive courtesy privi- 
leges at The New York Hospital Pharmacy. 

Entering students are requested to have a 
physical examination, chest X-ray and labo- 
ratory tests performed by their personal 
physicians prior to matriculation. The hours 
of the Personnel Health Service and a 



complete statement of Plan benefits will be 
provided to each graduate student. 

It is recommended that students 
purchase insurance coverage for eligible 
dependents who do not have other insur- 
ance available to them. Insured dependents 
are not eligible for care at the Personnel 
Health Service but they will be referred to 
appropriate members of the Hospital staff 
for medical treatment. 

A student studying in absentia may 
continue hospitalization insurance by 
payment of the annual fees directly to the 
Student Accounting Office. 

A student on leave of absence is not 
eligible to receive student health benefits. 

Residence Halls 

F. W. Olin Hall, a student residence, is at 
445 East Sixty-ninth Street directly across 
from the Medical College entrance on York 
Avenue. Olin Hall contains a gymnasium, 
lounges, and 245 residence rooms. Each 
residence room is a single bedroom-study, 
but since two rooms share a connecting 
bath, they may be used as a suite for two 
students. The rooms are completely 
furnished. The student housing fee is 8202 
per month. 

Livingston Farrand Apartments, also 
located on East Sixty-ninth Street, just 
beyond Olin Hall, have furnished apart- 
ments of l'/2, 2, 3, and 4 rooms. Cooking 
facilities are provided in these apartments. 
Housing fees range from $258-5476 per 
month (utilities not included). These apart- 
ments are available to married and upper- 
class students. 

Jacob S. Lasdon House,an apartment resi- 
dence, is located at 420 East Seventieth 
Street. This building contains studio, one- 
bedroom, and two-bedroom apartments 
and two squash courts. Apartments are fully 
furnished and include kitchens. Housing 
fees range from $437-8800 per month 
including utilities. Single, first-year students 
cannot be accommodated in this building. 

The fees listed above may be changed at 
any time without previous notice. 



72 



Special Programs 



Application to the Medical 
Scientist Training Program 
(M.D.-Ph.D.) 

Successful applicants must demonstrate a 
strong undergraduate science preparation, 
and an early commitment to a career 
combining both clinical and laboratory 
research. They must simultaneously satisfy 
the separate requirements for admission to 
Cornell University Medical College and to 
the Divisions of the Graduate Sc hool of 
Medical Sciences 

Applications must show w hether admis- 
sion is sought to the M.D.-Ph D program of 
the Medical College Division, the Sloan 
Kettering Division, or both ( see p 3 for a 
description of the programs ) Only one set 
of documents is required for applic ations to 
either or both programs. All documents 
must be forwarded to the Office of Admis- 
sions, Conw/l l niversity Medical College, 
i o East 691b street. New York, w 10021 
(Telephone 212. ^2 -5673 I 

The following items are required, bj 
November 30, for an application to be 
considered complete: 

1. AMCAS application (The personal data 
and academic record presented in this 
application are suitable for evaluation In 
both the medical and graduate schools.) 

1 Supplemental Information Form This 
form will be supplied when further 
information is requested 

3. Test Scores. MCAT scores are required; 
(IRE scores are optional If the GRE is 
taken, please instruct the Educational 
resting Service to forward your scores 

t Personal statement. A summary of the 
applicant's background, interests, and 
reasons for pursuing the combined 
program. 

5 Letters of Recommendation. 

a. Evaluation by the pre-medic.il advisors 
committee or two letters from members 
of the undergraduate science facult} 
addressing themselves to the applicant's 
SUitabilit) for a career in medicine 

b Evaluations bj at least two facult) 
members addressing themselves to the 
applicant's research potential. 
(> Application Fee Alter the AM< AS appli- 
cation is received, a check for $45 is 



requested to cover the application 
processing fee 

After screening, selected applicants to 
the program will be invited to visit the 
Cornell Medical ( enter and meet with 
members of the fac ulty of the medical and 
graduate programs These interv iew visits 
will be coordinated by the Medical College- 
Admissions Office. 

Application to the Ph.D.- 
M.D. Program 

Applications to this program ( see p 1 for 
description ) are ordinarily made alter the 
completion of the first year of study in the 
Graduate Sc hool of Medical Sc ience s 
although more advanced students may be 
considered Hie deadline for application is 
Eebruary 1. 

To apply, the student must submit to the 
Office of the Dean of the Graduate Sc hool 
Of Medical Sciences: 

1. A completed application lor admission 
with advanced standing to Cornell 
University Medical College (obtainable 
from the Medical College Admissions 
Office). 

2. A plan of graduate study incorporating 
all required course work of the first two 
years Ol the Medic al College curriculum 
and endorsed by the student's Special 
Committee 

3. Evidence ol successful completion ol at 
least two major medical school basic 

sc ience courses ( anatomical sciences 

biochemistry, microbiology, pathology, 
pharmacology, physiologj > 

4. Two letters of evaluation from (acuity ol 

the Graduate Sc hool of Medical Scienc es 

The Office of the Dean of the Graduate 

School Of Medical Sciences will review t he 
Student's credentials and make a recom- 
mendation to the Committee on Admis 
sions of Cornell University Medical College 
( )nlv applicants who are found to be 
acceptable by this committee, after review 
of the application and personal interviews. 



73 



can enter the Ph.D.-M.D. Program. Final 
decision will be made before June 1 . 

Students in this program must meet the 
following requirements before admission to 
the third-year clinical curriculum of the 
Medical College: 

1 . Complete all required graduate courses 
and the remainder of the first two years 
of the medical school curriculum. 

2. Pass the Admission to Doctoral Candi- 
dacy Examination, required by the Grad- 
uate School of Medical Sciences. 

3. Complete the dissertation research; 
present and successfully defend an orig- 
inal thesis at the final examination for 
the Ph.D. degree. 



After satisfactory fulfillment of the 
required clinical rotations of the Cornell 
third-year medical school curriculum, these 
students may receive credit for their grad- 
uate studies to satisfy the elective require- 
ments of the fourth-year medical school 
curriculum and will then be recommended 
for award of the M.D. degree by Cornell 
University. 

While registered as a graduate student in 
the Ph.D.-M.D. Program, the student is 
subject to the tuition schedule of the Grad- 
uate School of Medical Sciences. Upon 
completion of the requirements for the 
Ph.D. degree, the student is registered in 
the Medical College and is subject to its 
tuition schedule. 



74 



Instruction at the Medical College Division 



Field of Biochemistry 

Field Director 

A. Mcister, Department of Biochemist ry. 
Room E-106, Medical College, (212) 472- 
6212 

Faculty Representative 

D. Wellner, Department of Biochemist ry, 
Room E-219, Medical College. (212) 472- 
6197 

draduate instruction is offered leading to 
the Ph D degree Within the framework of 
degreee requirements and in consultation 
with the student, the course of Study Is 
planned to fit the need of the individual. 
Although formal course work is required, 
emphasis is placed on re-search. Research 
opportunities exist in various areas of 
hiochemistry including enzymology, struc- 
ture and function of proteins and nucleic 
acids, molecular biology, physical biochem- 
istry and the intermediary metabolism of 
amino acids, carbohydrates, nucleic acids, 
and lipids. Entering graduate students 
usually work for short periods in several of 
the laboratories of the faculty members of 
the Field before beginning their thesis 
research. Students are encouraged to 
choose challenging fundamental research 
problems that are on the frontiers of 
biochemistry 

The laboratories of the faculty members 
are equipped with virtually all of the instru- 
ments and facilities required for modern 
biochemical research; thus, graduate 
students are instructed in such method- 
ology as chromatography, eountercurrent 
distribution, radioactive and stable isotope 
techniques, spectrophotometry, electro 
phoresis, and analytical ultraccntrifugation 

Students who undertake graduate study 
in biochemistry must have a sufficiently 
comprehensive background in chemistry to 
pursue the proposed course of stud) and 
must present evidence of know ledge of 
biology, general experimental physics, 
mathematics (including differential and 
integral calculus ) Students may remedy 



deficiencies in these areas during the first 
year of graduate study. The Graduate 
Record Examination (the aptitude test and 
the advanced test in chemistry ) is ordinarily 
required. 

The student is required to demonstrate 
proficiency in one modern foreign language 
acceptable to the student s Special 
Committee. Proficiency in a computer 
programming language, as demonstrated by 
executing a meaningful program, may 
substitute for proficiency in a foreign 
language. 

Courses 

Graduate Biochemistry Offered jointly by 
the fac ulties of the Medical College and 
Sloan-Kettcring Divisions. This course is 
designed to provide the student with a 
knowledge of the fundamentals of biochem- 
istry and an appreciation of the molecular 
basis of biological phenomenia. Graduate 
students in the Field of Biochemistry are 
required to pass this course (or its equiva- 
lent ) First and second quarters. Dr. 
Maschemeyer. 

Advanced Biochemistry This course 
consists of one or more lecture series 
( minicourses) covering selected areas of 
current interest at an advanced level. The 
topics change from year to year and may be 
repeated after 2 or 3 years. The subjects 
ottered include: 1 ) nucleic acids and 
protein synthesis; 2 ) intermediate metabo- 
lism and its regulation; 3 ) kinetics and 
enzyme mechanisms; 4) protein and 
peptide microchemistry ; S) membrane 
Structure and function; 6) hormones; 7) 
computer programming for the biochemist; 
8 ) physical methods in the study of macro 
molecular and cellular structure; 9 I design 
of inhibitors of enzymes and transport 
systems Prerequisite: Graduate Biochem- 
istry. Courses offered in 1986-87: 

Molecular Biology of Nucleic 
Acid-Protein Interactions. Fourth 
quarter 1986-37. Dr. Lodord 



Biosynthesis, Processing, and 
Intracellular Transport of 
Proteins. Fourth quarter 1986-87. 
Dr. Tate. 

Membrane Biochemistry Fourth 
quarter 1986-87. Dr. Hajjar. 

Design of Inhibitors of Enzymes 
and Transport Systems Second and 
third quarters 1986-87. Dr. Griffith. 

Other Academic Offerings 

Introduction to Research Laboratory 
rotations in experimental biochemistry 
dealing with the isolation, synthesis, and 



analysis of substances of biochemical 
importance (enzymes, co-enzymes, various 
metabolites and intermediates), and study 
of their properties by various chemical and 
physical techniques. The student obtains 
this varied research experience by spending 
approximately two months in the labora- 
tory of each of four faculty members of his 
or her choice. For incoming graduate 
students majoring in biochemistry. 

Biochemistry Seminars A seminar series 
in which students, faculty, and invited 
scientists from this and other institutions 
report on progress in their laboratories. 



Field of Cell Biology and 
Genetics 

Field Director 

D. A. Fischman, Department of Cell Biology 
and Anatomy, Room E-l 16, Medical 
College, (212) 472-6400 

Faculty Representative 

J. L. German III, New York Blood Center, 
310 E. 67 St., New York, NY 10021,(212) 
570-3075 

The Field of Cell Biology and Genetics 
offers a program of advanced study leading 
to the Ph.D. degree. The program is 
intended to prepare students for a career in 
basic research and teaching in cell, develop- 
mental and molecular biology, genetics, 
anatomical sciences, or related health 
sciences. Administration of the Field is 
based in the Department of Cell Biology 
and Anatomy in a recently renovated 
research wing of Cornell University Medical 
College. Additional laboratories are located 
in various departments of Cornell University 
Medical College, the Sloan-Kettering Insti- 
tute, and the New York Blood Center. 

For graduate study in the field, adequate 
undergraduate preparation in biology, 
chemistry (including organic chemistry), 
physics, and mathematics is recommended. 
Requirements for admission are flexible in 



proportion to the promise and accomplish- 
ments of the applicant. Applicants are 
requested to present results of the Grad- 
uate Record Examination. 

Requirements for minor sponsorship in 
the field will be arranged with individual 
students, but research experience in the 
minor sponsor's laboratory is strongly 
encouraged. 

Students are generally required to take 
Cell Biology and Microscopic Anatomy and 
at least three of the more advanced courses 
in genetics, molecular biology, cell biology, 
or developmental biology. 

In addition to the courses listed below, 
appropriate courses for graduate students 
in the Field are Biochemistry, Physiology 
and Biophysics, and those courses given by 
the Field of Neurobiology and Behavior. 

Students are expected during their first 
year to spend time and perform experi- 
ments in the laboratories of three faculty 
members of the Field. 

A reading knowledge of a foreign 
language is desirable. 

The Field requires a qualifying examina- 
tion at the end of the first year of residence. 
At the discretion of the examining 
committee, the examination may be 
written, or oral, or both. The Admission to 
Doctoral Candidacy Examination required 



76 



by the Graduate School of Medical Sciences 
must be taken before six units of residence 
credit have been accumulated and before 
substantial progress has been made in the 
candidate's thesis research 

Courses 

Cell Biology and Microscopic Anatomy 
Offered by the Staff of the Field of Cell 
Biology and Genetics, Medical College Dim 
sion. in conjunction with the Department of 
Cell Biology and Anatomy, Medical College 
This course follows a cellular and different i 
ative approach aimed at understanding the 
structure- function correlates that charac- 
terize the different tissues and organs 
Selected topics are presented in the 
lectures and laboratory exercises to indi- 
cate a pattern of study and depth of anahsis 
that the student can be expected to apply 
to the study of cells and tissues A micro 
scope slide collection, presenting tissues 
and organs in a variety of physiological and 
developmental states, as well as correlative 
elec tron micrographs are provided for indi 
vidual study in the laboratory Students 
must provide their own compound micro- 
scopes through their departments or spoil 
sors Second and third quarters, annually 
Drs. Bader and Rodriguez-Boulan. 

Gross Anatomy Regional anatomy is 
studied principally through dissection of 
the human body. Supplementing this tech- 
nique are prosections by instructors, tuto- 
rial group discussions, and radiographic and 
endoscopic demonstrations. Enrollment is 
limited and students should consult the 
staff early in order to determine the availa- 
bility of places first and second quarters, 
annually. The staff 

Advanced Cell Biology Advanced course- 
covering topics in membrane biology, 
cytoskeleton and cell motility, muscle cell 
biology, and aspects of nuclear structure 
and chromosome organization. The course 
includes lectures and group discussions of 
assigned research papers. Prerequisite 
completion or concurrent enrollment in 
Microscopic Anatomy, or previous back- 
ground in basic cell biology . Offered in 
alternate years. Third and fourth quarters in 
1987-88. Dr. Wall and staff 

Genetics A comprehensive course covering 
classical mendelism through chromosomal. 



molecular, somatic ce ll and developmental 

genetics Genetics of human disease and 

Cancel are studied, as well .is some lininu- 
nogenctics. population and evolutionary 
genetics In addition to lectures, the course 
includes some sessions devoted to problem 
solving f irst and second quarters in i u «~ 
88. Drs German, Siniscalco, and Sirlin. 

Molecular Genetics The class foc uses on 
key topics of molecular biology conce rning 
gene structure and organization in proca- 
ryotcs and eucaryotes, chromosome struc- 
ture, DNA replication, protein synthesis and 
translational and transcriptional control. 
The use of genetic, bioc hemical and molec- 
ular biological methods to study the ques 
tions experimentally is covered in depth. 
Some topic s of current interest such as 
immune diversity and oncogene s are also 
covered. The course includes an equal 
number of lectures and group discussions 
of representative research papers from the 
current literature. Prerequisite: background 
in biological sciences. l imited to 20 
students. Offered in alternate years; First 
and second quarters in 1986-87. Drs. 
Traktman, Chao, and Neff. 

Developmental Biology Principles of 
descriptive, experimental, and molecular 
developmental biology are presented, using 
several animal systems as examples. Early 
de velopment of the whole organism, and of 
cells, tissues, and organs are considered. 
Prerequisites: microscopic anatomy 
biochemistry Limited to IS students 
Offered in alternate years; Third and fourth 
quarters in 1986-87. Drs. Bachvarova and 

Bader 

Practicum in Electron Microscopy A 

workshop in practical aspects of electron 
microscopy following a weekly one hour 
lecture students conduc t specific protocols 
involved in electron microscopy Topics 
covered include tissue fixation, embedding 
and thin sectioning; transmission and scan 
ning electron microscopy; shadow -casting 
of proteins and nucleic acids; immunocyto- 
e hemistn; photography All participants are 
require d to complete an independe nt 
projec t Prerequisite: conse nt of instructors. 
Requirements for passing grade completion 
of an independent project paper Limited to 
6 students Offered in 198" 88 during third 
and fourth quarters Dr Dennis .mil staff 



77 



Graduate Student Seminar This course is 
designed to improve graduate students' 
skills in public presentation. On a rotating 
basis, students prepare a brief written 



abstract and an oral presentation on a topic 
of their choice. The presentation is infor- 
mally critiqued by the faculty. First through 
fourth quarters, annually. Dr. Chao and staff. 



Field of Microbiology, 
Immunology, and 
Pathology 

Field Director 

K. I. Berns, Department of Microbiology, 
Room B-202, Medical College, (212) 472- 
6540 

Faculty Representative 

C. G. Becker, Department of Pathology, 
Room C-444, Medical College, (212) 472- 
5983. 

The Field of Microbiology, Immunology and 
Pathology offers graduate training leading 
to the Ph.D. degree. Under special circum- 
stances candidacy towards the M.S. degree 
will be considered. The purpose of the 
graduate program is to provide students 
with a basic knowledge of molecular and 
cellular biology, immunology, and of 
disease processes, as well as approaches to 
the study of these areas employing the most 
modern techniques of molecular biology, 
immunology, and chemistry. It is hoped that 
a student completing this program will have 
the information and technical skills to make 
significant inquiries into the nature of 
disease processes and to bridge the gap 
between classical descriptive microbiology 
and pathology and such disciplines as 
biochemistry and molecular biology. 

Prospective students should complete at 
the undergraduate level the minimum of 
one year or its equivalent in general chem- 
istry, organic chemistry, general physics, 
mathematics (including calculus), botany 
or zoology (preferably both) and one 
semester or the equivalent of analytical or 
quantitative chemistry. Students who have 
not completed the above requirements may 
be admitted to graduate study under the 
condition that deficiences be corrected 



soon after admission. Applicants are ordi- 
narily required to present Graduate Record 
Examination scores for the aptitude test 
and for the advanced test in chemistry or 
biology. Exceptions to these requirements 
will be considered on behalf of students 
with advanced standing. 

Courses 

Microbiology and an Introduction to 
Infectious Diseases Consists of laboratory 
exercises, lectures, and group discussions. 
The laboratory work includes an introduc- 
tion to the procedures used in studying 
microorganisms, a survey of the microbial 
flora of the upper respiratory and lower 
intestinal tracts of healthy humans, and an 
intensive study of the causal agents of 
specific infections, including bacteria, fungi, 
spirochetes, rickettsiae, and viruses. The 
lectures are directed toward the develop- 
ment of basic concepts, particularly the 
principles involved in microbial growth, the 
principles underlying active immunization, 
and the factors that enter into host -parasite 
relationships. Emphasis is placed on the 
etiology, pathogenesis, epidemiology, and 
prevention of infectious disease. Offered 
every year in the first quarter. Dr. Berns and 
staff. 

Advanced Diagnostic Microbiology The 

lecture and laboratory sessions acquaint the 
student with the procedures used in and 
techniques of management of a clinical 
microbiology laboratory. Emphasis is upon 
developing the student's capability in the 
isolation and rapid identification of organ- 
isms from various types of clinical speci- 
mens. Liberal use is made of clinical mate- 
rials available through the diagnostic 



78 



laboratories or New York Hospital. Offered 
every year in the third quarter Hours In 
arrangement. Dr. Senterfit. 

Pathology and Pathophysiology Placed 
at the interface between the basic sciences 
and the beginning of the clinical curric- 
ulum, the course is a comprehensive study 
of the structural and functional alterations 
caused by disease. It starts with an intro 
duction of the principles of general 
pathology and the basic mechanisms of 
disease including cell injury and death, 
inflammation, thrombosis, carcinogenesis 
and immunopathology. This is followed by 
the study of the diseases that affect the 
various organ systems from the etiologic, 
pathogenetic. Structural and functional 
standpoints and including elements of clin- 
ical and laboratory diagnosis. Clinico- 
pathologic correlations are emphasized 
throughout the course which is taught with 
the collaboration of the Departments of 
Medicine, Pediatrics, Surgery, Neurology, 
Obstetrics and Gynecology, Ophthalmology 
and Otorrhinolaryngology. 

A major strength of the course is its 
emphasis on small group teaching. This 
takes four different formats: 1 ) microscopic 
laboratory where students review histologic 
slides representative of major disease 
processes, formulate diagnoses, and corre- 
late microscopic findings with clinical signs 
and symptoms; 2 ) gross laboratory where 
students examine actual pathologic speci- 
mens under the supervision of a faculty 
member; 3 ) pathophysiology exercises 
where students analyze case histories 
including diagnostic and pathogenetic 
considerations under the guidance of a clin- 
ical faculty member; and 4 ) Reviews where 
a pathologist and clinician challenge 
students with questions pertaining to 
subject matter covered on the preceding 
teaching module. These various formats 
emphasize problem solving and conceptual 
thinking by stimulating the student to 
formulate differential diagnoses and clinico- 
pathologic correlations A microcomputer 
teaching laboratory serves as an adjunct 
facility for students to review course mate 
rial, take quizzes and study case histories in 
preparation for the weekly clinico- 
pathologic conferences. The laboratory is 
equipped with ten work stations each 
consisting of a Macintosh computer, a color 
video monitor and a video disk player First 



through third quarters, annually. Dr. Ellis 
and staff. 

Introduction to Immunology This 
annual course which is organized by the 
Sloan Kettering Division but has an intcrdi- 
visional faculty, is required of all students in 
the f ield of Microbiology, Immunology, and 
Pathology See under Unit of Immunology, 
Sloan-Kcttcring Division, for course 
description. 

Molecular Immunology The course 
focuses on the molecular biology of recep- 
tors on lymphocytes, macrophages, and 
granulocytes, with an emphasis on the 
interaction of soluble mediators or 
microbes with cells of the immune system. 
Research tehniques and methodologies are 
discussed. The course consists of lectures, 
readings and discussion. A basic knowledge 
of immunology equivalent to the introduc- 
tory course is a prerequisite. Offered in 
alternate years. Third and fourth quarters in 
1987-88. Drs. Edelson and Mosser. 

Microbiology Seminar Reports on surveys 
of the literature in the field and on current 
research Presented by graduate students, 
faculty , and visiting scientists. Attendance is 
required of all students majoring or 
minoring in microbiology throughout their 
programs of study. First through fourth 
quarters annually. Drs. Berns and Sussdorf. 

Other Academic Offerings 

Clinical Microbiology Program — Ithaca 
and New York Campuses During the 
senior year of a special undergraduate study 
program on the Ithaca campus or during 
the y ear after receiving a bachelor's degree, 
the student may concentrate on developing 
skills in clinical microbiology at the Cornell 
University Medical College-New York 
Hospital in New York City. Students partici- 
pate in courses concerned with microbi- 
ology, introduction to infectious diseases, 
diagnostic microbiology, parasitology, 
immunology, and virology , in addition to 
working in the hospital diagnostic labora- 
tory lliis clinical microbiology specializa- 
tion is designed to prepare students tor 
employment in clinical microbiology labo 
ratories. However, it could also be selected 
In students interested in further education 
or other careers Dr. Senterfit 



79 



Field of Neurobiology and 
Behavior 



Field Director 

T. H. Joh, Department of Neurology, Kips 
Bay Building, Medical College, (212) 472- 
5594 

Faculty Representative 

G. E. Gibson, Department of Neurology, 
Burke Rehabilitation Center, White Plains, 
NY, (914) 948-0050, Ext. 2291 

The Field of Neurobiology and Behavior 
provides training in the study of the 
nervous system. It includes the disciplines 
of neuroanatomy, neuroembryology, neuro- 
physiology, neuropharmacology, neuro- 
chemistry, neuroendocrinology, molecular 
biology, and neuropsychology and percep- 
tion. The program of the Field emphasizes a 
multi-disciplinary approach to the study of 
the nervous system, based on the belief that 
future advances in our understanding of the 
nervous system will be derived from the 
thinking and research techniques employed 
by more than one discipline. Toward this 
end, the program of the students entering 
the Field is planned in consultation with 
several staff members, and the students are 
expected to spend some period of time 
working closely with members of the 
faculty whose interests are related to theirs. 
In addition, there are regularly scheduled 
seminars in the Field during which various 
aspects of work in process are presented 
and discussed. By these means, the students 
are afforded the broadest possible view of 
the Field during their total training 
experience. 

The student majoring in Neurobiology 
and Behavior will be required to satisfy the 
requirements of the courses in neuros- 
cience, statistics, and biomathematics, and 
two in the following areas: microscopic 
anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, and 
pharmacology. The student must also have 
two minors, at least one of which is outside 
the Field. In addition, participation in the 
seminar program and advanced course 
offerings is expected. While there are no 
language requirements, it is suggested that 
the student achieve mastery of a modern 
foreign language or a computer program- 
ming language. The student choosing 



Neurobiology and Behavior as a minor is 
required to participate in the neuroscience 
course and the seminar program as well as 
obtain any additional experience that the 
minor sponsor may suggest. 

Applicants to the Field are expected to 
have had adequate undergraduate training 
in biology, organic chemistry, physics, and 
mathematics. Graduate Recod Examination 
scores are to be submitted with the applica- 
tion. An interview with the applicant is 
considered highly desirable. 

Courses 

Neuroscience This is the basic undergrad- 
uate medical school course and is required 
of all major and minor candidates in the 
Field. It is a broadly based course and intro- 
duces the student to neuroanatomy, neuro- 
physiology, and pertinent neurology. Fourth 
quarter annually. Drs. Brooks and Grafstein. 

Neuroscience Seminar Current topics of 
neurosciences, not included or minimally 
covered in the Neuroscience course, are 
examined in detail. The course is required 
of all major candidates in the Field. Fourth 
quarter annually. Drs. Brooks and Grafstein. 

Neuropharmacology (see Interdivisional 
Program in Pharmacology). 

Behavioral Neuroscience The aim of this 
course is to examine the neural substrates 
of a variety of behavioral and mental 
processes, including attention, perception, 
learning and memory, emotion, and 
language. Anatomical, physiological, phar- 
macological, biochemical, and molecular 
mechanisms of normal and pathological 
behaviors will be covered. The course will 
be divided into 4 lectures on basic mecha- 
nisms and 4 seminars exploring methodo- 
logical and theoretical issues in contempo- 
rary behavioral neuroscience. First quarter, 
1986-87. Drs. LeDoux and Mann. 

Neurochemistry This course will concen- 
trate on the dynamics of neurotransmittera- 
mino acid, calcium and energy metabolism 
of the brain. The emphasis will range from 
in vivo studies in man and animal that relate 
directly with behavior to purely chemical 



80 



approaches. Second quarter, 1986- 198" 
Dr ( ribson. 

Molecular Neurobiology The aim of tins 
course is to introduce current topics of 
rapidly developing molecular biologj 



research in aeurosciences. Topics include 
basic conc epts and techniques, structures 

Of genes encoding neuron Specific proteins 
and enzymes, and gene expression in neur- 
onal cells Third quarter, 1986-198" Dr 
Joh 



Field of Physiology and 
Biophysics 

Field Director 

E. K Vt indhager, Department of Physiology 
and Biophysics, Room C-508, Medical 
College, (212) 472-5229 

Faculty Representative 

T. Maack, Department of Physiology and 
Biophysics, Room D-407, Medical College, 
(212) 4^2-5281 

Opportunities are ottered toward the Ph.D. 
degree in several areas of physiology and 
biophysics. Ample space is available, and 
laboratories are well equipped to provide 
predoctoral training in a medical environ- 
ment. Interested individuals are urged to 
contact the Field Director before preparing 
a formal application. Letters of inquiry 
should include a discussion of the educa- 
tional background and indicate possible 
areas of emphasis in graduate study. There 
has been a tendency to encourage applica- 
tions from individuals who have a probable 
interest in more than one of the areas of 
physiology represented within the Field. 

Applicants must have completed intro 
ductory courses in biology . inorganic and 
organic chemistry, physics, and mathe- 
matics through the level of differential and 
integral calculus Additional course work in 
these disciplines at the undergraduate level 
is encouraged. Applicants with Otherwise 
exemplary records who lack certain course 
requirements will be considered for accept- 
ance provided that they remedy their defi- 
ciencies while in training. 

The course of stud) emphasizes the 
importance of teaching and research in the 
preparation and development of indiv iduals 
for careers in physiology. This goal is 
achieved by a combination of didactic 



courses, seminars, and closely supervised 
research leading toward the preparation of 
a satisfactory thesis. 

A special program of study will be devel- 
oped for each student in consultation with 
his or her Special Committee In addition to 
the general requirements set by the Grad- 
uate School for all fields, all candidates for 
the doctoral degree in physiology will be 
expected to meet the following 
requirements: 

1. Evidence of a satisfactory background in 
neurosciences. Ordinarily, the course in 
neuroscience described under the Field 
of Neurobiology and Behavior, or an 
equivalent course, will be taken concur- 
rently with the course in physiology and 
biophysics 

2. Satisfactory completion of the course in 
physiology and biophysics, or an equiva- 
lent course. 

3. For majors and minors in the Field, a 
minimum of two elective courses in the 
Field ordinarih will be required, in addi- 
tion to the course in physiology and 
biophysics 

Courses 

Physiology and Biophysics l ectures and 
conferences on body fluids, bioelectric 
phenomena, circulation, respiration, and 
gastrointestinal functon. Third quarter, 
annually Dr \\ indhager and stall 

Lectures and conferences on kidney func- 
tion, acid-base regulation, endocrinology, 
and metabolism and a weeld] laboratory on 
selected aspects of physiology. Fourth 
quarter, annual!) Dr \\ indhager and staff. 



81 



Topics in Membrane Physiology This 
weekly conference is designed for Ph.D. 
and M.D.-Ph.D. students with a major or 
minor in Physiology and Biophysics. It is at 
a somewhat advanced level, especially in its 
quantitative approach to physiology. The 
aims of the conference are to train students 
in physiological concepts, to facilitate the 
understanding of lecture material in the 
physiology and biophysics course, and to 
establish close student -faculty contact. 
Third quarter, annually. Dr. Andersen. 

Selected Topics in Kidney and Electro- 
lyte Physiology and Pathophysiology 

Lectures, seminars and demonstrations. 
Topics include: 1 ) GFR, clearance concept, 
reabsorption and secretion of electrolytes; 
2 ) concentrating mechanism; 3 ) electro- 
physiology of the nephron; 4 ) pathophysi- 
ology of potassium; 5 ) renal blood flow and 
its intrarenal distribution; 6) renal physi- 
ology in the newborn; 7) control of body 
fluid volume and tonicity; 8) pathology and 
pathophysiology of renal failure; urinary 
sediment; 9) radiology of the kidneys; 10) 
dialysis; 11) transplantation. Minimum of 8 
students. Fourth quarter, annually. Drs. 
Maack, Windhager and staff. 

Ionic Channels The course covers mathe- 
matical and experimental approaches to the 
topic of ion movement through single chan- 
nels. Minimum of 5 students. Prerequisite: 2 



years of calculus. Fourth quarter, annually. 
Dr. Andersen and invited lecturers. 

Physiology of Cardiac Muscle The 

course is designed to present cellular 
mechanisms which are involved in the 
fundamental processes of excitation and 
contraction of cardiac muscle. Topics 
include: 1 ) action potential; 2 ) ion trans- 
port; 3) contractility (positive and negative 
inotropic effects); 4) excitation-contraction 
coupling; 5) arrhythmias; 6) cardiac failure. 
One laboratory day is planned for demon- 
strations of changes in action potential and 
twitch tension by inotropic agents. 
Minimum of 5 students. Prerequisites: third 
quarter physiology or equivalent. Fourth 
quarter, annually. Dr. Lee and invited 
lecturers. 

Topics in Gastrointestinal Physiology 

Lectures and Seminars. Topics include: 
1 ) functional morphology of stomach and 
intestine; 2 ) proliferation and differentia- 
tion of gastrointestinal cells; 3 ) motility of 
swell in esophagus, small intestine and 
colon; 4 ) gastric and intestinal secretion; 
pancreatic secretion; 5) lipid absorption; 6) 
intestinal absorption of calcium and vitamin 
D; 7) structure and function of bile acids; 
8) gastrointestinal hormones. Minimum: 8 
students. Fourth quarter, annually. Dr. 
Martin Lipkin and invited experts in the 
field. 



82 



Instruction at the Sloan-Kettering Division 



Graduate Seminar This wcckh graduate 
seminar is offered each year During the 
first trimester, second year students will 
present brief reports on their research 
experiences in the laboratory rotations. 
First-year students may report on laboratory 
rotations, review a selected area of 
research, or critically review a research 
paper. The discussion is carried out princi- 
pally by graduate students under the guid- 
ance of their major (temporary or pcrnia- 
nent ) sponsors. From time to time 
outstanding authorities are invited as guest 
speakers. In addition, students in their third 
and later years of graduate study address 
the seminars on the progress being made in 
their thesis work. 

Laboratory Rotations Throughout the 
year students should spend time in research 
laboratories. Arrangements for laboratory 
rotation should be made with the major 
sponsor. 



Minor Projects Two minor subjects are 
required of all students and they may 
include some laboratory training, i e . .1 
minor project. The major sponsor assumes 
the responsibility for monitoring the time 
spent on the project. Minor subjects should 
be completed before the Admission to 
Doctoral Candidacy Examination 

Laboratory Safety and Biohazards 
Course All students are required to take by 
their second year the course of six basic 
lectures sponsored by the Sloan-Kettering 
Institute Institutional Biosafety Committee 
The series covers general laboratory safety, 
the use of radiosotopes, carcinogens, 
primary and secondary barrier systems, 
contamination control, and hazards asso- 
ciated with research animals, and is supple- 
mented by lectures on special topics given 
throughout the year. 



Unit of Cell Biology and 
Genetics 

Program Chairman 

J. L Biedler, Sloan-Kettering Institute, 
Walker Laboratory, Room 2127, (914) 698- 
1100. Ext. 210 

Unit Chairman 

D. B. Donner. Sloan Kettering Division, 
Howard Laboratory, Room 909, (212) 794- 
7871 

Students will spend their first year in: 1 ) 
satisfying course and seminar requirements; 
2 ) participating in laboratory rotations; and 
3 ) initiating one or two minor projects. The 
I nit Chairman will serve as temporary 
major advisor during this time. At the end 
of the first year the student's performance 
will be reviewed and a Special Committee 
of three members will lx- selec ted The 
Special Committee membership must 



provide multidisciplinary academic 
backgrounds. 

During the second academic year 
students should complete two minor proj- 
ects, satisfy the requirements of the Admis- 
sion to Doctoral Candidacy Examination 
and initiate a thesis project 

Prerequisites for a major in Cell Biology 
and Genetics include courses in chemistry 
(through organic), biochemistry, physics 
mathematics ( through calculus ) and 
general biological sciences ( botany, 
/oology, microbiology, cell biology); pins 
ical chemistT) is recommended 

Submission of Graduate Record Examina- 
tion results, in both aptitude and the 

advanced te st in biology or chemistn is 
required. 

Programs will be determined individual!) 
on the basis of interest and prior experi- 
ence. Students are expected to have know 1 



83 



edge of materials offered in the courses of 
the Unit and in microscopic anatomy. 
Exemption from the courses can be granted 
following the successful completion of a 
written examination. Students majoring in 
cell biology may be advised to register for 
courses in molecular biology, genetics, 
biochemistry, and biostatistics. 

Courses 

Topics in Cell Biology and Genetics 

This course includes a detailed description 
of the structure, function and mechanism of 
action of hormones and growth factors. 
Topics include cell surface and intracellular 
receptors, signal transduction, second 
messenger generation, regulation of the 
growth, differentiation and transformation 
of hemapoietic, gene expression and 
biochemical pathways. Discussion of the 
principles of genetics stress the relationship 
of classical genetics and molecular biology 
with special reference to the regulation of 
gene expression during embryonic develop- 
ment. Sessions emphasize discussion of the 
primary literature and recent advances. First 
through fourth quarters, annually. Drs. 
Donner, Eisinger, Moore, and staff. 



Other Academic Offerings 

Endocrine Research in Progress Semi- 
nars Reports of on-going research by 
faculty of the Graduate School of Medical 
Sciences, Cornell University Medical 
College and Rockefeller University are given 
weekly. First through fourth quarters. 

Regulation of Gene Expression A journal 
club in which recent literature related to 
the hormonal regulation of gene expression 
provides the basis of discussion. Second 
quarter. Dr. Kourides and staff. 

Research Elective in Hormonal Regula- 
tion of Gene Expression A laboratory 
elective in which students will apply 
methods of molecular endocrinology to the 
study of gene expression. Requires a 
commitment of at least two concurrent 
quarters. Enrollment limited. Dr. Kourides 
and staff. 

Cancer Genetics and Cytogenetics This 
elective explores the molecular basis of 
gene and chromosome changes associated 
with development of human tumors, in 
particular, leukemia, lymphoma and reti- 
noblastoma. First quarter. Dr. Chaganti and 
staff. 



Unit of Developmental 
Therapy and Clinical 
Investigation 

Acting Program Co-Chairman 

J. J. Fox, Sloan-Kettering Institute, Walker 
Laboratory, Room 3037, (914) 698-1 100, 
Ext. 225 

Unit Chairman 

F. M. Sirotnak, Sloan-Kettering Division, 
Kettering Laboratory, Room 316, (212) 
794-7952 

In this multidisciplinary program, opportu 
nities for advanced study are focused on 
laboratory, clinical and/or statistical 
research as they relate to cancer preven- 
tion, diagnosis and treatment. Undergrad- 



uate prerequisites vary with the subspe- 
cialty area of training in which the student 
wishes to concentrate; the areas of study 
offered and their recommended undergrad- 
uate backgrounds are reviewed briefly 
below. Graduate Record Examination 
results in both the aptitude test and the 
advanced test in an appropriate area of 
concentration are required to be submitted 
by all applicants to the Unit. 

1. Instruction toward the Ph.D. degree 
with emphasis in Biochemical and 
Molecular Pharmacology, Medicinal 
Chemistry and Biochemistry, and 
Cancer Therapeutics. 



84 



Sec intt rdivi.sional Program in Pharma- 
cology for program description (p. SS). 

2. Instruction toward the M.S. degree 
with emphasis in Radiation Biology, 
Radiation Physics, and Radio- 
pharmaceutics. 

Applicants should have a major in 
biophysics or a major in biology , chemist rv 
or mathematics, with training in general 
physics, electricity and magnetism, 
mechanics, mathematics ( through calculus) 
and thermodynamics 

Students will be required to take 
advanced instruction in cell and molecular 
biology and in physics, biochemistry and 
mathematics, depending upon the level of 
prior training 

Candidates arc expected to take 
advanced instruction in physics, biophysics, 
biology, radiobiology, biochemistry, and 
biomathematics with a minor in one of 
these subjects other than physics, and 
prepare a thesis in the field of radiation 
physics Candidates must demonstrate a 
thorough knowledge of this area in a final 
written and oral examination 

3. Instruction in Biostatistics. 

Hie program is designed to provide 
training in statistical theory, methodology, 
and computing, combined with broad expe- 
rience in data analysis and collaborative 
research with medical investigators. 
Courses to be completed by each student 
will depend upon the level of prior training 
and individual interests. In addition to basic 
probability theory and statistical inference 
there is spec ial emphasis on the design and 
analysis of clinical trials and the dev elop 
men! of skills in exploratory data anahsis 

Courses 

Radiation Physics, Lectures and Prob- 
lems A series of lectures and assigned 
problems in applied mathematics, funda- 
mentals of radiation physics, \ raj and 
radium treatment planning, diagnostic x-ray 
principles, radiation protection, and uses ol 
radioactive isotopes. First through third 
quarters, annual!) i)r Laugblin 



Biostatistics I: Introduction to Statistical 
Reasoning It is the aim of tins <. ourse to 
help participants gain some insight into the 
theory underlying a probabilistic approach 
to the treatment of observational or experi- 
mental data, and to acquaint them with the 
most basic techniques of statistical analysis 
First quarter, annually i>r Groshen, 

Biostatistics II: Experimental Design 
and Curve Fining Application of concepts 
introduced in biostatistics l to the analysis 
ol scientific data Topics include statistical 
design of experiments, anahsis of variance, 
correlation, and linear regression Second 
quarter, annually. Drs. Groshen and Thaler. 

Survival Analysis and Clinical Trials 

Parametric and nonparametric models of 
Survival times, exponential and Weibull 
distributions; life table and Kaplan-Meier 
estimates; design of randomized clinical 
trials, concomitant variables, stratification, 
sample si/e determination; 2 and k sample 
techniques for censored data; generalized 
\\ ileoxon and log-rank tests. Cox regres- 
sion lliird quarter, annually. i)r Groshen 

Other Academic Offerings 

Advanced Biophysics laboratory rota- 
tions in various areas of radiation physics. 
Hours by arrangement l)r Iaughlin. 

Radiobiology Tutorial in fundamental 
radiobiology dealing with the effects of 
radiation on cells, viruses, and macromole- 
cules, as well as on whole animals. Also 
covered are areas in radiation physics and 
radiation chemistry pertinent to radiobi- 
ology. Dr. Zeitz and staff. 

Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry A tuto- 
rial in radiopharmaceutical chemistry is 
offered to Students majoring or minoring in 
tins subject Hours bj arrangement Dr 
Gelbard and staff. 

Biophysics Colloquia Reports on 
research in progress b> facult) and outside 
let Hirers Required for majors in biophysk s 
Hours by arrangement. Staff. 



Unit of Immunology 



Program Chairman 

Osias Stutman, Sloan-Kettering Institute, 
Kettering Laboratory, Room 1118, (212) 

794-7475 

Unit Chairman 

Robert W. Knowles, Sloan-Kettering Insti- 
tute, Schwartz Laboratory, Room 1001, 
(212) 794-7089 

Programs are determined individually on 
the basis of interest, training, prior experi- 
ence, and consultation with the student's 
Special Committee. The Unit has no fixed 
course work requirements other than those 
set by the student's permanent Special 
Committee. However, all students majoring 
in the program are expected to take full 
advantage of the Unit's core program of 
formal courses as well as to participate in 
additional course offerings of the Sloan- 
Kettering Division, Medical College Divi- 
sion, and other institutions which best 
complement their previous background and 
fulfill their scholastic objectives. Students 
will spend their first year in: 1 ) satisfying 
course and seminar requirements; 2 ) 
participating in laboratory rotations; and 3) 
initiating one or two minor projects. The 
Unit Chairman will serve as temporary 
major advisor during this time. At the end 
of the first year, the student's performance 
will be reviewed and a Special Committee 
of three members will be selected. The 
Special Committee includes a major 
sponsor and two minor sponsors with 
multidisciplinary academic backgrounds. 
During the second academic year, students 
should complete the two minor projects 
required by the Special Committee, take the 
Admission to Doctoral Candidacy Examina- 
tion, and initiate a thesis project. It is the 
clear intention of the Unit that extensive 
formal course work should not interfere 
with participation in the various other activ- 
ities, such as laboratory rotations, tutorials 
and minicourses as well as seminars and 
lectures offered at the Sloan-Kettering Insti- 
tute and neighboring institutions. 

Undergraduate prerequisites include a 
general college-level background in biology 
and other sciences, including a strong back- 



ground in genetics, biochemistry and 
microbiology. 

Submission of Graduate Record Examina- 
tion results, in both the aptitude and the 
advanced test in biology or chemistry, is 
required. 

Courses 

Introduction to Immunology This 
course provides a broad introduction to the 
field of Immunology and the specific 
research interests of the faculty. It is 
designed for first year graduate students 
and is also open to medical students and 
senior technologists with no formal training 
in Immunology. It includes an overview of 
the immune system, but also covers 
selected topics in detail. 

These topics include techniques in 
immunology, B lymphocytes, immunoglo- 
bulins and monoclonal antibodies, T 
lymphocytes and T cell clones, immunoge- 
netics of lymphocyte differentiation anti- 
gens, cell mediated immunity, T cell 
antigen receptors, natural cytotoxicity, 
macrophage and other accessory cells, 
lymphokines, the serum complement 
system, the major histocompatibility 
complex genes and transplantation, HLA 
and disease associations, and tumor immu- 
nology. First and second quarters, annually. 
Dr. Knowles and the Immunology Unit 
faculty. 

Other Academic Offerings 

Colloquia in Immunology Informal 
sessions between students and senior 
faculty members to acquaint students with 
the major research programs headed by 
each of the faculty members of the Immu- 
nology Unit. Students from other units are 
also welcome to these sessions, which are 
announced monthly. The colloquia are 
open to all graduate students at all levels of 
training. 

Laboratory Rotations, Tutorials and 
Minicourses In order to become familiar 
with the various research programs which 
are available to students doing major or 
minor work in immunology, the Unit 
advises entering students to participate in 
as many one-week laboratory rotations, 



86 



tutorials and minicourscs as can he a*, com lions, tutorial programs and minicourscs 
modated into the first-year schedule. Hie are available from the office of the I ail 

lists and descriptions for laboratory rota- Chairman 




8~ 



Instruction in the Interdivisional Programs 



Molecular Biology 

Interdivisional Program 
Chairmen 

E. Fleissner, Chairman, Program in Molec- 
ular Biology, Sloan-Kettering Institute. 
Kettering Laboratory, Room 923, (212) 
794-7494 

K I. Berns, Chairman, Department of Micro- 
biology, Cornell University Medical College; 
Director, Field of Microbiology, Immu- 
nology, and Pathology, Graduate School of 
Medical Sciences. Medical College, Room B- 
309,(212)472-6540 

Interdivisional Faculty 
Representative 

K J. Marians, Sloan-Kettering Institute, 
Kettering Laboratory, Room 820A, (212) 
794-5890. 

Admission 

A good background in genetics, chem- 
istry or biochemistry is required of 
students. Graduate Record Examination 
scores in both the aptitude test and the 
advanced test in biology or chemistry are 
also required. 

Course Requirements 

In the first two years students are expected 
to complete a core curriculum of Graduate 
Biochemistry, Molecular Biology, Cell 
Biology, Nucleic Acids Enzymology, Molec- 
ular Virology, Molecular Genetics and Grad- 
uate Seminar. Students are also required to 
take a minimum of two additional courses 
in order to complete the requirements for 
the Ph.D. 

Minor Requirements and Labora- 
tory Rotations 

It is expected that most students will elect 
to rotate through two or three laboratories. 
In that event, a written report summarizing 
the research project undertaken during a 
rotation through a laboratory other than the 
one finally chosen for thesis research will 
fulfill the minor requirement. In the event 
that the student chooses not to undertake 



laboratory rotations and to commence 
thesis research directly, the Curriculum 
Committee will assign a written project that 
will fulfill the minor requirement. The 
minor requirement must be completed 
before the student can take the Admission 
to Doctoral Candidacy Examination. 

Admission to Doctoral 
Candidacy 

This Examination will be given once a year 
in June and consist of two parts, a uniform 
written exam and an oral defense of a 
written research proposal. The proposal 
cannot be in the same field as the student's 
thesis research. It is expected that most 
students will take this exam at the end of 
their second year. 

Special Committee 

A student's Special Committee will be 
chosen by the student's mentor in consulta- 
tion with the Curriculum Committee when 
the student elects a laboratory for thesis 
research. 

Courses 

Molecular Biology A year-long course 
presenting the fundamentals of eukaryote 
gene structure, expression and regulation. 
Topics discussed include: DNA sequence 
organization, chromatin structure, viral and 
cellular RNA transcription, translation and 
its regulation, control of gene expression in 
model systems and molecular aspects of 
carcinogenesis. First through fourth quar- 
ters. Drs. Sen, Furth, and staff. 

Nucleic Acids Enzymology A formal 
course presenting the enzymological mech- 
anisms and control of prokaryotic and euka- 
ryotic transcription and DNA replication. 
Enzymes which alter DNA structure and 
shape are reviewed and topics in DNA 
repair and recombination are also covered. 
Graduate Biochemistry is a prerequisite. 
First and second quarters, 1986-87. Drs. 
Marians, Hurwitz, and Holloman. 



88 



Molecular Virology A formal course in 
which major emphasis is placed on the 
basic mechanisms in the biology of all 
animal viruses, including RNA and DNA 
tumor viruses. The topics considered 
include virus structure and composition, 
assay of viruses and viral-specific products, 
transcription and replication of viral nucleic 
acids, translation of virus-specific proteins 
assembly of viral panicles, structural and 
functional alterations in viral-infected cells 
including transformation, pathogenesis of 
\iral diseases, and viral genetics lliird and 
fourth quarters, 1 986-87. Drs. Krug and 
Berns. 

Molecular Genetics This course is 
designed to familiarize graduate students 
with practical problems in current research 
and to encourage critical reading of the 
scientific literature. Students receive 
reading assignments and are expected to 
present short summaries of important 
experiments at each class meeting. Topics 
covered include protein structure, protein 
nucleic acid interactions, models for tran- 
scription factors, genetic complementation, 
mapping and suppressor analysis in bacteria 
and yeast. First and second quarters, 1 986- 
87. Dr. Traktman, Chao, and Neff. 

Molecular Biology of Growth Control 
and Neoplastic Transformation This 
course focuses on current efforts to under 
stand the neoplastic cell phenotypc from a 
molecular point of view The effects of RNA 



and DNA tumor viruses on host cells arc 
discussed, in particular the transformation 
and or differentiation blocks ol defined cell 
lineages by certain agents Hie nature and 
enzymatic specificities of viral gene prod- 
ucts responsible for transformation arc 
compared with related produc ts of normal 
cellular genes The potential interaction of 
such produc ts with regulatory systems 
controlling cell shape, adhesiveness, 
motility, and mitosis are described, as well 
as the possible involvement of the same 
systems in nonviral neoplasias. A section ol 
the course Is devoted to the molecular 
biology and biochemistry of cell surface 
growth fac tor and polypeptide hormone- 
receptors and mechanisms of signal trans- 
mission across biological membranes. At 
least part of the course consists of student 
presentations on relevant subjects. Third 
and fourth quarters. Drs. Fleissncr, 
Hayward, Rosen, and staff. 

Molecular Parasitology This course 
focuses on the recent advances in the 
molecular and biochemical analysis of para- 
site physiology and their interactions with 
vertebrate hosts. Lectures are offered once 
a week, followed by a discussion group. 
Topics include structures and functions ol 
surface molecules, mechanism of antigen 
variations and immune ev asion, interaction 
ot parasites with targeted cells as well as 
general aspects of gene organization and 
expression in various parasites lliird and 
fourth quarters. 1987-88. Dr. Ravetch. 



Pharmacology 

Interdivisional Program 
Chairmen 

Chairman: W. W. Y Chan. Acting Chairman, 
Department of Pharmacology. Cornell 
I'niversity Medcial College, Room E-400, 
(212) 472-6029 

Co-Chairman: J. J. Fox, Acting Co-Chairman. 
Program of Development Therapy and Clin 
ical Investigation, Sloan Kettering Institute. 
Walker laboratory. Room 3037. (914) 698- 
1 100 



Interdivisional Faculty 
Representative 

M OkamotO, Department of Pharmacology. 
Cornell I niversirv Medical College. Room 
E-411, (212)472-5975 

litis program within the Cornell I niversitj 

Graduate School ol Medical Sc ienc es is 
jointly sponsored by faculties of the Field of 
Pharmacology of the Medical College Dim 
sioii .mcl the I nit ot Developmental 



89 



Therapy and Clinical Investigation of the 
Sloan-Kettering Division. This coordinated 
faculty provides the student with a broad 
spectrum of challenging research opportu- 
nities in modern pharmacology and a 
unified curriculum. Students admitted to 
this program will receive tuition scholar- 
ships and stipends. 

Admission 

A baccalaureate degree with a strong back- 
ground in the natural sciences and/or 
health sciences is required for admission. 
Graduate Record Examination scores in 
both the aptitude test (verbal, quantitative, 
and analytical) and the advanced test in 
Biology or Chemistry are also required for 
Ph.D. applicants. For applications to the 
M.D.-Ph.D. program, the results of the 
Medical College Admission Test are 
accepted in lieu of the Graduate Record 
Examination. 

Course Requirements 

In the first two years students are expected 
to complete a core curriculum that may 
include: Graduate Biochemistry, Cell 
Biology, Physiology, Neuroscience, Grad- 
uate Pharmacology, Molecular Pharma- 
cology, Molecular Biology, Immunology, 
and Graduate Seminar. 

Minor Requirements and Labora- 
tory Rotations 

Students are required to rotate through two 
or three laboratories. Until the student 
selects a major sponsor, the Curriculum 
Committee will supervise the student's 
graduate program. The minor requirements 
must be completed before the student can 
take the Admission to Doctoral Candidacy 
Examination. 

Admission to Doctoral 
Candidacy 

The Admission to Candidacy Examination 
consists of two parts: a uniform written 
exam and an oral defense of a written 
research proposal. It is expected that most 
students will take this exam by the end of 
their second year. 



Special Committee 

A student's Special Committee will be 
chosen by the student and major sponsor in 
consultation with the Curriculum 
Committee after the student obtains a 
major sponsor for thesis research. 

Courses 

General Pharmacology The basic phar- 
macology course consists of lectures, 
demonstrations, and small group confer- 
ences. The purpose of these exercises is to 
teach the principles of pharmacology to 
second-year medical students and to grad- 
uate students. Detailed consideration is 
given to the parameters of drug action to 
provide the student with the fundamental 
concepts essential for the evaluation of any 
drug. Consequently, the scientific basis of 
pharmacology is emphasized. Prototype 
drugs, essentially considered systemically, 
serve to illustrate several mechanisms and 
parameters of drug action. Therapeutic 
applications are considered only insofar as 
they illustrate principles of pharmacology 
or drug hazards. First quarter, annually. Dr. 
Chan and staff. 

Molecular Pharmacology Fundamental 
principles and mechanisms governing the 
effects of chemicals on living systems are 
examined from the viewpoint of drug-cell 
interactions. Several theoretical concepts 
are introduced including drug selectivity, 
dose-response relationships, and funda- 
mental mechanisms of drug actions. Also 
discussed are factors that govern the fate 
and time course of drugs in organisms 
including: drug absorption, distribution, 
biotransformation, pharmacokinetics. Exam- 
ples of receptor isolation, drug-receptor 
interactions, and effector coupling are also 
examined. Offered every third year. Offered 
in 1986-87. 

Neuropharmacology This course presents 
the neuropharmacology of selected drugs 
and chemical substances that affect the 
central nervous system. Emphasis is placed 
on molecular mechanisms of drug actions 
with regard to the biochemistry and physi- 
ology of nervous tissue. These considera- 
tions include mechanisms of neurotrans- 
mitter actions, including drug actions that 



90 



modify neurotransmitter actions Several 
pharmacologic concepts Important to 
understanding drug action on the nervous 
system arc considered throughout These 
include selectivity, specificitj dose response 
and receptor theory. Offered in 1986-87. 
Dr. OkamotO and staff. 

Other Academic Offerings 

Research in Pharmacology Research 
opportunities may be arranged throughout 
the year tor graduate students who are not 

majoring in pharmacology hut who want 

some investigative experience in the disci 
pline. Special opportunities are offered tor 
work on the nervous and cardiovascular 
systems and in biochemical and clinical 
aspects of pharmacology (See Research 
Activities, p. 55. ) 

Seminars The Held of" Pharmacology offers 
seminars in areas of interest to the faculty 



and graduate students of the Field Seminars 
in clinical pharmacology and teaching 
rounds arc held regularly throughout the 
year The content, format and schedule of 
these seminars are determined each year on 
the basis of the number and backgrounds of 
the interested students 

Journal Clubs These are ottered in areas Ol 

pharmacology of special interest Topics 
include the role of oxytocin and prosta 
glandin in labor and dysmenorrhea; regula- 
tion of opioid peptide biosynthesis; cardio 
vascular pharmacology of anaphylactic 
responses; neuropharmacology of drugs of 
abuse; clinical and geriatric pharmacology; 
clinical drug studies in the pediatric popu- 
lation, and prostaglandin and leukotriene 
pharmacology , their action on cardiovas- 
cular and renal systems Each topic is one 
quarter in length; see the Faculty Reprc 
scntativc tor further information. 



91 



Register 



93 



University Administration 

Frank H.T. Rhodes. Preside nt of the 
University 

Robert Barker, University Provost 

Thomas H. Meikle, Jr., Provost tor Medical 
Affairs and Dean of the Medical 
College 

William G Herbster, Senior Vice President 

Joseph M. Ballantyne, Vice President for 
Research and Advanced Studies 

Robert Matyas. \ ice President for f ac ilities 
and Business Operations 

\X illiam D. Gurowitz, \ ice President for 
Campus Affairs 

James E. Morley, Vice President and 
Treasurer 

Richard M Ramin, Vice President for Public- 
Affairs 

James A. Sanderson. Chief Investment 
Officer 

Joan R. Egner, Associate Provost 

Barry Adams. Vice Provost for Undergrad- 
uate Education 

Kenne th M King. N ice Provost 

lames \\ Spencer, Vlcee Provost 

Walter J. Relihan, Jr.. University Counsel and 
Secretary of the Corporation 

Joseph B. Bugliari, Dean of University Faculty- 
Graduate School of 
Medical Sciences 

Administration 

Frank H T Rhodes. President of the 
I nivcrsity 

Alison P Casarett. Dean of the Graduate 
School 

Be rnard L Horecker. Dean of the Graduate- 
School of Medical Sciences, Associate 
Dean of the Graduate School 

Dieter H. Sussdorf, Associate Dean of the 

Graduate School of Medical Sc iences. 
Assistant Dean of the Graduate School 



Richard A Rifkind. Director. Sloan Ke ttering 

I Hvision 

DorrisJ. Hutchison. Assoc iate Direc tor. 
Sloan Kettering Division. Assoc iate- 
Dean of the Graduate School of 
Medical Sciences. Assistant Dean of 
the Graduate Sc hool 

Standing Committees 
Executive Committee 

Bernard L Horecker. ( hair 
Alton Meister 
Ke nneth [. Berns 
June L Biedler 
Walter W. Y. Chan 
David B. Donner 
Donald A. Fischnun 
Frvvin Fleissner 
Jack J Fox 
DorrisJ Hutchison 
Tong H. Joh 
Thomas H. Meikle. Jr. 
Michiko Okamoto 
Richard A. Rifkind 
Amita Se hgal' 
l).i\iel Solomon" 
Dieter H. Sussdorf 
Osias Stutman 
Erich E. Windhager 

Faculty Advisory 
Committee 

Michiko Okamoto. ( hair 
Virginia Bayer 

Carl G. Becke r 
David B Donne r 
James L German III 

"non-voting numbers 



95 



Gary E. Gibson 
Bernard L. Horecker* 
Clifford Hume 
DorrisJ. Hutchison* 
Robert W. Knowles 
Thomas Maack 
Kenneth J. Marians 
Thomass H. Meikle, Jr.* 
Richard A. Rifkind' 
Francis M. Sirotnak 
Dieter H. Sussdorf * 
Daniel Wellner 

Curriculum Committee 

Donald A. Fischman, Chair 
David B. Dormer 
Bo DuPont 
DorrisJ. Hutchison 
Alton Meister 
Tong H. Joh 
Richard A. Rifkind 
Francis M. Sirotnak 
Dieter H. Sussdorf 
Erich E. Windhager 

Credentials Review 
Committee 

DorrisJ. Hutchison, Co-Chair 
Dieter H. Sussdorf, Co-Chair 
Rosemary F. Bachvarova 
Esther M. Breslow 
Ora M. Rosen 
Martin Sonenberg 

M.D.-Ph.D. Program 
Committee 

Donald A. Fischman, Chair 
Kenneth I. Berns 
Marvin C. Gershengorn 



Jerard Hurwitz 
Ralph L. Nachman 
Osias Stutman 

Committee on Student 
Prizes 

Michiko Okamoto, Chair 
David P. Hajjar 
Kenneth O. Lloyd 
Raymond E. Lockard 

Faculty 

Albino, Anthony P., Assistant Professor of 
Immunology. BA 1970, Hunter 
College; Ph.D. 1974, Cornell 
University 

Allen, Fred H. Jr., Clinical Associate 

Professor of Pediatrics, AB. 1934, 
Amherst College; M.D. 1938, Harvard 
University 

Alonso, Daniel R, Associate Professor of 
Pathology. M.D. 1962, University of 
Cuyo (Argentina) 

Andersen, Olaf S., Professor of Physiology 

and Biophysics. Candidatus Medicinae 

1971, University of Copenhagen 
(Denmark) 

Artzt, Karen, Associate Professor of Cell 

Biology and Genetics. AB. 1964, Ph.D. 

1972, Cornell University 

Bachvarova, Rosemary F., Associate Professor 
of Cell Biology and Anatomy. BA. 
1961, Radcliffe College; Ph.D., 1966, 
Rockefeller University 

Bader, David M., Assistant Professor of Cell 
Biology and Anatomy. BA. 1974, 
Augustana College; Ph.D. 1978, 
University of North Dakota 

Baker, Harriet D., Assistant Professor of 

Neurology. BA. 1963, Wells College; 
M.S. 1967, University of Illinois; Ph.D. 
1976, University of Iowa 

Balis, M. Earl, Professor of Cell Biology and 
Genetics. BA. 1943, Temple Univer- 
sity; Ph.D. 1949, University of 
Pennsylvania 



96 



Bancroft, F. Carter, Adjunct Associate 

Professor of Molecular Biology. B.S. 
1959, Antioch College; M A 1961. 
Johns Hopkins University; Ph.D, 1966, 
University of California at Berkeley 

Bank, Arthur, Adjunct Professor of Cell 
Biology and Anatomy. BA. 1 956, 
Columbia University; M.D. I960. 
Harvard University Medical Sc hool 

Barany, Francis, Assistant Professor of Micro- 
biology BA. 1976, University of Illi- 
nois at Chicago Circle; Ph.D. 1981, 
Rockefeller University 

Becker, Carl G., Professor of Pathology . B.S. 
1957, Yale University; M.D. 1961, 
Cornell University 

Bedford, J. Michael, Professor of Cell Biology 
and Anatomy. BA. 1955, M A Vet. 
M.B. 1958, Cambridge University 
(Fngland); Ph.D. 1965, University of 
London ( England ) 

Berns, Kenneth I., RA. Rees Pritchett 

Professor of Microbiology. A.B. I960, 
Ph.D. 1964, M.D. 1966, Johns Hopkins 
University 

Besmer, Peter, Assistant Professor of Molec- 
ular Biology. M.S. 1964; Ph.D. 1969, 
Fidgenossische Technische Hoch- 
schule (Switzerland) 

Bianco, Celso, Adjunct Professor of Cell 
Biology and Anatomy. M.D. 1966, 
Escola Paulista de Medicina (Sao 
Paulo. Brazil ) 

Biedler, June L, Professor of Cell Biology 
and Genetics. A.B. 1947, Vassar 
College; Ph.D. 1959, Cornell 
University 

Bigler, Rodney E., Avsociate Professor of 

Physiology and Biophysics, B.S. 1 966, 
Portland State College; Ph.D 1971, 
University of Texas 

Black, Ira B . Professor of Neurology. A.B. 
1961, Columbia College; M.D. 196S. 
Harvard University 

Blass, John P., Professor of Neurology and 
Medicine, A.B. 1958. Harvard Univer- 
sity, Ph.D. 1960. University of London 
(Fngland). M.D. 1965. Columbia 
University 



Borenfreund. Ellen, Associate Professor of 
Cell Biology and Genetics bs 1946, 
Hunter College; Ph I) 1957, New 
York University 

Boske\. Allele I . Associate Professor of 
Biochemistry. BA. 1964, Barnard 
College; Ph i). 1970, Brown University 

Boyse, Edward A., Professor of Immunology. 
M.B.B S 1952, M.D. 1957, University 
of London ( England ) 

Breslow, Esther M., Professor of Biochem- 
istry. B.S. 1953, Cornell Universii\ 
M.S. 1955, Ph.D. 1959, New York 
University 

Brooks, Dana C, Professor of Cell Biology 
and Anatomy. B E E. 1949, M.D. 1957, 
Cornell University 

Bullough, Peter, Associate Professor of 
Pathology. M.D. 1956, Liverpool 
University ( England ) 

Cayre, Yvon, Assistant Professor of Immu- 
nology. M.D. 1972, Montpellier 
Faculty of Medicine (France); Dr. Sci. 
1978, Paris Faculty of Science 
( France ) 

Chaganti, Raju S., Associate Professor of Cell 
Biology and Genetics. B.S. 1954, M.S. 
1955, Andhra University (India); Ph.D. 
1964, Harvard University 

Chan, Walter W.Y., Professor of Pharma- 
cology. BA. 1956, University of 
Wisconsin; Ph.D. 1961, Columbia 
University 

Chao, Moses V., Assistant Professor of Cell 
Biology and Anatomy. BA. 1973, 
Pomona College; Ph.D. 1980, Univer- 
sity of California at Los Angeles 

Chou, Ting-Chao, Associate Professor of 
Developmental Therapy and Clinical 
Investigation. B.S. 1961, Kaohsiung 
Medical College (Taiwan); M.S. 1965, 
National Taiwan University; Ph.D. 
1970, Yale University 

Cooper. Arthur J.L., Associate Research 
Professor of Biochemistry in 
Neurology. Assistant Professor of 
Biochemistry B.Sc. 1967. M.Sc. 1969, 
I nivcrsity of London (Fngland); Ph.D 
1974, Cornell University 



97 



Darzynkiewicz, Zbigniew, Associate 
Professor of Cell Biology and 
Genetics. M.D. I960, Academy of 
Medicine, Warsaw (Poland); Ph.D. 

1965, Academy of Medicine and 
Polish Academy of Sciences (Poland) 

Dickerman, Robert W., Associate Professor 
of Microbiology. B.S. 1951, Cornell 
University; MA. 1953, University of 
Arizona; Ph.D. 1961, University of 
Minnesota 

Donner, David B., Associate Professor of Cell 
Biology and Genetics. BA. 1966, 
Queens College; Ph.D. 1972, Rensse- 
laer Polytechnic Institute 

Dreyfus, Cheryl F., Assistant Professor of 
Neurology. B.S. 1967, University of 
Vermont; M.S. 1969, Ph.D. 1976, 
Cornell University 

Dupont, Bo, Professor of Immunology. M.D. 

1966, University of Arhus (Denmark) 

Edelson, Paul, Associate Professor of Micro- 
biology in Pediatrics. A.B. 1964, 
University of Rochester; M.D. 1969, 
State University of New York, Down- 
state Medical Center, Brooklyn, New 
York 

Eisinger, Magdalena G, Associate Professor 
of Cell Biology and Genetics. D.V.M. 
1962, Agricultural University Kosice 
( Czechoslovakia ) 

Ellis, John T., Professor of Pathology. BA. 

1942, University of Texas; M.D. 1945, 
Northwestern University 

Fairclough, Gordon F., Associate Professor of 
Biochemistry. BA. I960, Ph.D. 1966, 
Yale University 

Falck-Pedersen, Erik, Assistant Professor of 
Microbiology. BA. 1976, North 
Central College; Ph.D. 1982, Univer- 
sity of Illinois 

Famulari, Nancy G, Assistant Professor of 
Molecular Biology. BA. 1969, Colby 
College; Ph.D. 1974, Cornell 
University 

Fell, Colin, Associate Professor of Physiology 
and Biophysics. B. A. 1951, Antioch 
College; M.S. 1953, Ph.D. 1957, Wayne 
State University 



Felsen, Diane F., Assistant Professor of Phar- 
macology in Surgery. BA. 1974, 
Queens College; Ph.D. 1979, Mt. Sinai 
School of Medicine 

Fischman, Donald A., Professor of Cell 

Biology and Anatomy. Harvey Klein 
Professor of Biomedical Sciences. A.B. 
1957, Kenyon College; M.D. 1961, 
Cornell University 

Flomenberg, Neal, Assistant Professor of 

Immunology. B.S. 1974, Pennsylvania 
State University; M.D. 1976, Jefferson 
Medical College 

Fleissner, Erwin, Professor of Molecular 
Biology. BA. 1957, Yale University; 
Ph.D. 1963, Columbia University 

Fox, Jack J., Professor of Developmental 
Therapy and Clinical Investigation. 
A.B. 1939, Ph.D. 1950, University of 
Colorado 

Fried, Jerrold, Associate Professor of Devel- 
opmental Therapy and Clinical Investi- 
gation. B.S. 1958, California Institute 
of Technology; Ph.D. 1964, Stanford 
University 

Furth, Mark E., Assistant Professor of Molec- 
ular Biology. BA. 1972, Harvard 
University; Ph.D. 1978, University of 
Wisconsin-Madison 

Gardner, Daniel, Associate Professor of Phys- 
iology and Biophysics. A.B. 1966, 
Columbia College; Ph.D. 1971, New 
York University 

Gass, Jerald D., Associate Professor of 

Biochemistry. B.S. 1957, University of 
Oklahoma; A.M. 1962, Harvard Univer- 
sity; Ph.D. 1969, Cornell University 

Gazzaniga, Michael S., Professor of Neurop- 
sychology in Neurology. A.B. 1961, 
Dartmouth College; Ph.D. 1964, Cali- 
fornia Institute of Technology 

Gelbard, Allan S., Associate Professor of 

Developmental Therapy and Clinical 
Investigation. B.S. 1955, Brooklyn 
College; M.S. 1956, University of 
Massachusetts; Ph.D. 1959, University 
of Wisconsin 



98 



Gcller, Nancy L, Assistant Professor of 
Developmental Therapy and c 'link ai 
Investigation B.S. 1965, (in I niver 
sity of Ne w York, MA. 1967, Case 
Institute of Technology; Ph.D. 1972, 
Case Western Reserve i University 

German, James L III, Clinical Professor of 
Pediatric s; Clinical Professor of Medi- 
cine. B.S. 1945, Louisiana Polytechnic 
Institute; M.D. 1949, Southwestern 
Medical College 

( iershengorn, Mar\in C, Professor of Physi- 
ology and Biophysics B.S 1967, City 
College of the City I diversity of New 
York; M.I). 1971, New York Uni\ersii\ 
School of Medicine 

Gihbs. James G. Jr., Associate Professor of 
Psychiatry. B.S. I960, Trinity College 
M.D. 1964, Medical College of South 
Carolina 

Gibson, Gary E., Associate Professor of 
Neurology. B.S. 1968, I niversity of 
Wyoming; Ph.D. 1973, Cornell 
University 

Gilder, Helena, Associate Professor of 
Biochemistry in Surgery; Assistant 
Professor of Biochemistry. A.B 19.45. 
Vassar College; M.D. 1940, Cornell 
University 

Goldstein, Jack, Associate Professor of 
Biochemistry. B.A 195_>. Brooklyn 
College; M.N.S. 1957, Ph.D. 1959, 
Cornell University 

Graf, Lloyd H. Jr., Adjunct Assistant Professor 
of Genetics in Obstetrics and Gyne- 
cology. B.S. 1967, Ph.D. 1972, Duke 
University 

Grafstcin, Bernice, Vincent and Brook Astor 
Distinguished Professor of Neuro 
science. Professor of Physiology and 
Biophvsies B.A 1951. I niversity of 
Toronto (Canada); Ph.D. 1954, Met. ill 
University ( Canada ) 

Grcif, Roger L, Emeritus Professor of Physi- 
ology and Biophysics B S 1937, 
Haverford College; M.D. 1941, Johns 
Hopkins I niversity 

Griffith, Owen W., Associate Professor of 

Biochemistry BA 1968, I niversity of 
California at Berkeley; Phi) 1976, 
Rockefeller University 



Groshen, sus.m Assistant Professor of Devel- 
opmental Therap) and clinical [nvestJ 
gation. A.B. 1973, Cornell University; 
M S 1976, I'll 1) 19^8. Ringers 

i niversity 

Gupta, Sohan Lai, Assistant Professor of 

Molecular biology. M.S. 1960, Aligarh 
Muslim University ( India); Ph D 1967, 
All India Institute of Medical Sciences. 
New Delhi ( India) 

Hajjar, David P., Associate Professor of 

Pathology. BA. 1974, American Inter 
national College; M S. 1977, Ph.D. 
1978, University of New Hampshire 

Halmi, Kathcrine A., Associate Professor of 
Psychiatry B.A 1961, M.D. 1965, 
i Diversity of Iowa 

Hammerling, Ulrich, Professor of Immu- 
nology. Diplom 1961 Universitat Erei- 
burg (Germany); Ph.D. 1965, Max 
Planck Institut fur Immunohiologic 
(Germany) 

Haschemeyer, Rudy H., Professor of 

Biochemistry. BA. 1952, Carthage 
College; Ph.D. 1957, University of 
Illinois 

Hayward, W illiam S.. Professor of Molecular 
Biology. B.A. 1964, University of Cali- 
fornia, Riverside; Ph.D. 1969. Univer- 
sity of California, San Diego 

Hinkle, I^twrence E. Jr., Professor of Mi di 
cine; Professor of Medicine in Psychi- 
atry. BA. 1938, University of North 
Carolina; M.D. 1942, Harvard 
University 

Hoffmann, Michael K., Associate Professor of 
Immunology. M.D. 1966, Universitat 
Tubingen (German} I 

Holloman, W illiam. Professor of Microbi- 
ology, B.S. 1967, LIniversity of Texas 
Ph D. 1971, University of California, 
Berkeley 

Horecker, Bernard L, Professor of Biochem- 
istry. B.S 1936, Ph I) 1939. I m\ersii\ 
of Chicago 

Hosein, Barbara 11. Adjunct Assistant 
Professor of Cell Biology and 
Anatomy. BA. 1969, University of 
Kansas; M.S. 1971, Ph.D. 1973. Univer 
sity of Michigan 



99 



Houghton, Alan, Assistant Professor of 
Immunology, BA. 1970, Stanford 
University; M.D. 1974, University of 
Connecticut 

Hurwitz, Jerard, Professor of Molecular 

Biology. BA. 1949, Indiana University; 
Ph.D. 1953, Western Reserve 
University 

Hutchison, Dorris J., Professor of Cell 
Biology and Genetics. B.S. 1940, 
Western Kentucky State College; M.S. 
1943, University of Kentucky; Ph.D. 
1949, Rutgers University 

Iacovitti, Lorraine, Assistant Professor of 

Neurobiology in Neurology. B.S. 1973, 
Monmouth College, Ph.D. 1979, 
Cornell University Graduate School of 
Medical Sciences 

Iadecola, Costantino, Assistant Professor of 
Neurology. M.D. 1977, University of 
Rome ( Italy) 

Inturrisi, Charles E., Professor of Pharma- 
cology. B.S. 1962, University of 
Connecticut; M.S. 1965; Ph.D. 1967, 
Tulane University 

Jacobs, Patricia A., Professor of Cell Biology 
and Anatomy; B.Sc. 1956; D.Sc. 1966, 
St. Andrews University (Scotland) 

Jaffe, Eric, Professor of Medicine. M.D. 1966, 
State University of New York, Down- 
state Medical Center 

Joh, Tong Hyub, Professor of Neurobiology 
in Neurology. B.S. 1953, Seoul 
National University (Korea); Ph.D. 
1971, New York University 

Kaplan, Barry B., Adjunct Associate Professor 
of Cell Biology and Anatomy. BA. 
1968, MA. 1969, Hofstra University; 
Ph.D. 1974, Cornell University 

Keithly, Jan S. Assistant Professor of Microbi- 
ology; Assistant Professor of Microbi- 
ology in Medicine. B. S. 1963, Central 
Missouri State University; Ph.D. Iowa 
State University 

King, Thomas KC, Associate Professor of 
Medicine, Clinical Associate Professor 
of Physiology and Biophysics. 
M.B.B.Ch. 1959, M.D. 1963, University 
of Edinburgh (United Kingdom) 



Knowles, Robert, Assistant Professor of 
Immunology. A.B. 1970, Bowdoin 
College; Ph.D. 1976, Pennsylvania 
State University 

Kourides, lone A, Associate Professor of Cell 
Biology and Genetics. BA. 1963, 
Wellesley College; M.D. 1967, Harvard 
University 

Krug, Robert M., Professor of Molecular 

Biology. BA. 1961, Harvard University; 
Ph.D. 1966, Rockefeller University 

Lacy, Elizabeth, Assistant Professor of Molec- 
ular Biology. BA. 1974, University of 
Pennsylvania; Ph.D. 1980, California 
Institute of Technolgy 

Lai, Chun-Yen, Adjunct Professor of 

Biochemistry. B.S. 1953, M.S. 1957, 
National Taiwan University; Ph.D. 
1961, University of Illinois 

Laughlin, Johns S., Professor of Develop- 
mental Therapy and Clinical Investiga- 
tion. A.B. 1940, Willamette University; 
Ph.D. 1947, University of Illinois 

LeDoux, Joseph E., Assistant Professor of 
Neurology. B.S. 1971, M.S. 1974 Loui- 
siana State University; Ph.D. 1977, 
State University of New York at Stony 
Brook 

Lee, Chin Ok, Associate Professor of Physi- 
ology and Biophysics. M.S. 1967, Seoul 
National University (Koera); Ph.D. 
1973, Indiana University School of 
Medicine 

Lee, Janet, Assistant Professor of Immu- 
nology. BA. 1972, University of 
Minnesota; M.S. 1974, University of 
Wisconsin; Ph.D. 1979, University of 
California at San Francisco 

Levi, Roberto, Professor of Pharmacology. 
M.D. I960, University of Florence 
(Italy) 

Levy, David E., Associate Professor of 
Neurology. AB. 1963, M.D. 1968, 
Harvard University 

Lin, Chiann-Tso, Assistant Professor of Physi- 
ology and Biophysics. Diploma of 
Engineering 1963, Taipei Institute of 
Technology; Diploma of Chemistry 
(Master) 1970, Technical University 
of Braunschweig (West Germany); 
Ph.D. 1974, University of Frankfurt 
(West Germany) 



100 



Lipkin, Martin, Professor of Medicine A.B. 
1946, M.D. 1950, New York Universitj 

Lloyd, Kenneth ()., Associate Professor of 

Immunology. Ph.D. I960, University of 
College of North Wales (UK.) 

I.ockard. Ra>Tnond E., Assistant Professor of 
Biochemistry-. BS l i x>(>. Syracuse 
University; Ph.D. 19-2. University of 
Cincinnati 

Maack, Thomas, Professor of Physiology and 
Biophysics. M.D. 1962, University of 
Sao Paulo (Brazil) 

MacLeod, John, Emeritus Professor of Cell 
Biology and Anatomy. A.B. 1934, M.Sc. 
1937, New York University; Ph.D. 
1941, Cornell University 

Mann, J. John, Associate Professor of Psychi- 
atry. B.S., M.D. 1971, University of 
Melbourne (Australia) 

Marians. Kenneth J.. Associate Professor of 
Molecular Biology. B.S. 1972, Poly- 
technic Institute of Brooklyn; Ph.D. 
1976, Cornell University 

Marks, Paul A., Professor of Cell Biology and 
Genetics. A.B. 1945, Columbia Univer- 
sity; M.D. 1949, College of Physicians 
and Surgeons, Columbia University 

Meister, Alton, Israel Rogosin Professor of 
Biochemistry. B.S. 1942, Harvard 
University; M.D. 1945, Cornell 
University 

Melamed, Myron R., Professor of Cell 
Biology and Genetics. B.S. 1947, 
Western Reserve University; M.D. 
1 950, University of Cincinnati 

Melera, Peter W . Assistant Professor of 

Molecular Biology. AAS. 1963, State 
University of New York at Cobleskill; 
B.SA. 1965, Ph.D. 1969, University of 
Georgia 

Minick, C Richard, Professor of Pathology. 
B.S. 1957, University of Wyoming; 
M.D. 1960, Cornell University 

Moon, Hong Mo, Adjunct Professor of 

Neurobiology. B.S. 1961, Sung Kyun 
Kwan University (Korea); Ph.D. 1967, 
University of North Carolina 

Moore, Malcolm A S., Professor of Cell 

Biology and Genetics. M B. 1963, BA 
1964, D. Phil. 1967, MA 1970, 
Oxford Univ e rsity (England) 



Muller-Eberhard, Ursula, Professor of Pediat- 
rics; Professor of Pharmacology M.D. 
1953, University of Gdttingen 
( derm any) 

Murray, Henry W., Associate Professor of 
Microbiology, BA 1968, Cornell 
University; M.D. 1972, Cornell Univer- 
sity Medical College 

Nachman, Ralph L, Professor of Medicine. 
A.B. 1953, M.D. 1956, Vanderbilt 
University 

Nachshen, Daniel A., Assistant Professor of 
Physiology and Biophysics. B.Sc. 1970, 
Hebrew University; Ph.D. 1979, 
Sackler School of Medicine at Tel Aviv 
University ( Israel ) 

Neff, Norma, Assistant Professor of Molec- 
ular Biology. BA. 1974, Rice Univer- 
sity; Ph.D. 1978, University of Cali- 
fornia, Berkeley 

Novogrodsky, Abraham, Associate Professor 
of Biochemistry. M.D. 1960, Hebrew 
University Medical School, Jerusalem; 
Ph.D. 1974, Weizmann Institute of 
Science, Rehovot (Israel) 

O'Donnell, Michael E., Assistant Professor of 
Microbiology, B.S. 1975, University of 
Portland; Ph'D. 1982, University of 
Michigan 

O'Donnell, Paul V., Associate Professor of 
Molecular Biology. B.S. 1968, Rensse- 
laer Polytechnic Institute; Ph.D. 1973, 
Cornell University 

Octtgen, Herbert F.. Professor of Immu- 
nology. M.D. 1951, University of 
Cologne (Germany) 

Okamoto, Michiko. Professor of Pharma- 
cology. B.S. 1954, Tokyo College of 
Pharmacy (Japan); M.S. 1957, Purdue 
University; Ph.D. 1964, Cornell 
University 

Old, Lloyd J., Professor of Immunology. BA. 
1955, M.D 1958, University of 
California 

O'Leary, William M., Professor of Microbi- 
ology. B.S. 1952. M S 1953. Ph.D. 
1 957, I 'nivcrsity of Pittsburgh 

O'Reilly. Richard J . Profevsor of Immu- 
nology. A.B. 1964. College of the Holy 
Cross; M.D. 1968, University of 
Rochester 



101 



Otter, Brain A., Associate Professor of Devel- 
opmental Therapy and Clinical Investi- 
gation. B.Sc. 1962, Ph.D. 1965, Univer- 
sity of Bristol (England) 

Palmer, Lawrence G., Associate Professor of 
Physiology and Biophysics. BA. 1970, 
Swarthmore College; Ph.D. 1976, 
University of Pennsylvania 

Pardee, Joel D., Assistant Professor of Cell 
Biology and Anatomy. B.S. 1973, Colo- 
rado State University; Ph.D. 1978, Stan- 
ford University 

Pasternak, Gavril W., Associate Professor of 
Pharmacology. BA. 1969, M.D. 1973, 
Ph.D. 1974, Johns Hopkins University 

Pelus, Louis M., Assistant Professor of Cell 
Biology and Genetics. BA. 1973, 
Queens College of the City University 
of New York; M.S. 1977, Ph.D. 1977, 
Rutgers University 

Petito, Carol K., Associate Professor of 

Pathology. B.S. 1963, Jackson College; 
M.D. 1967, Columbia University 

Phillips, David M., Adjunct Professor of Cell 
Biology and Anatomy. B.S. 1961, 
Northeastern University; Ph.D. 1966, 
University of Chicago 

Pickel, Virginia M., Professor of Neurology. 
B.S. 1965, M.S. 1967, University of 
Tennessee; Ph.D. 1970, Vanderbilt 
University 

Pickering, Thomas G., Associate Professor of 
Medicine. BA. 1962, MA. 1968, 
Cambridge University (England); 
Ph.D. 1970, Oxford University 
(England) 

Plum, Fred, Anne Parrish Titzell Professor of 
Neurology. BA. 1944, Dartmouth 
College; M.D. 1947, Cornell University 

Pollack, Marilyn S., Adjunct Assistant 

Professor of Immunology. A.B. 1961, 
M.A. 1963, University of California at 
Berkeley; Ph.D. 1968, Rutgers 
University 

Posner, Aaron S., Professor of Biochemistry. 
B.S. 1 94 1 , Rutgers University; M.S. 
1 949, Polytechnic Institute of 
Brooklyn; Ph.D. 1954, University of 
Liege ( Belgium ) 



Prince, Alfred M., Clinical Associate 

Professor of Pathology. AB. 1949, Yale 
University; MA. 1951, Columbia 
University; M.D. 1955, Western 
Reserve University 

Quimby, Fred, Associate Professor of 

Pathology. V.D.M. 1970, University of 
Pennsylvania School of Veterinary 
Medicine; Ph.D. 1974, University of 
Pennsylvania Graduate School of Arts 
and Sciences 

Rabellino, Enrique M., Assistant Professor of 
Medicine. B.S. 1959, Institute J. M. Paz 
(Argentina); M.D. 1965, University of 
Cordoba (Argentina) 

Rachele, Julian R., Emeritus Professor of 
Biochemistry. BA. 1934, M.S. 1935, 
Ph.D. 1939, New York University 

Ravetch, Jeffrey A., Associate Professor of 
Molecular Biology. B.S. 1973, Yale 
University; Ph.D. 1978, Rockefeller 
University; M.D. 1979, Cornell 
University 

Ray, James H, Adjunct Assistant Professor of 
Cell Biology and Anatomy, B A. 1 967, 
Murray State University; M.S. 1969, 
University of Kentucky, Ph.D. 1976, 
University of Houston 

Rayson, Barbara, Assistant Professor of Physi- 
ology and Biophysics; Assistant 
Professor of Medicine in Physiology. 
B.Sc. 1972, Ph.D. 1976, LJniversity of 
Melbourne (Australia) 

Reidenberg, Marcus M., Professor of Pharma- 
cology. B.S. 1954, Cornell University; 
M.D. 1958, Temple University 

Reis, Donald J., George C. Cotzias Distin- 
guished Professor of Neurology. A.B. 
1953, M.D. 1956, Cornell University 

Rifkind, Arleen B., Professor of Pharma- 
cology; Associate Professor of Medi- 
cine. BA. 1960, Bryn Mawr College; 
M.D. 1964, New York University 

Rifkind, Richard A., Professor of Cell Biology 
and Genetics. B.S. 1951, Yale Univer- 
sity; M.D. 1955, Columbia University 

Riker, Walter F. Jr., Professor of Pharma- 
cology. B.S. 1939, Columbia Univer- 
sity; M.D. 1943, Cornell University 



102 



Risley, Michael, Associate Professor of Cell 
Biology and Anatomy. B.S. 1970, 
Manhattan College; Ph D 1976, City 
University of New York 

Rodman, Toby C, Professor of Cell Biology 
and Anatomy. B.S. 1937, Philadelphia 
College of Pharmacy and Science; M S 
1961, Ph.D. 1963, New York 
University 

Rodrigucz-Boulan, Enrique, Associate 
Professor of Cell Biology and 
Anatomy. BA. 1963. National College 
of Buenos Aires; M.D. 1970, University 
of Buenos Aires ( Argentina) 

Rosen, Ora ML, Professor of Molecular 

Biology. BA. 1956, Barnard College; 
M.D. 1960, Columbia University 

Rothermel. Constance Davis, Assistant 

Professor of Microbiology , B.S. 1964, 
W est Virginia University; M.S. 1967, 
University of North Carolina; Ph.D. 
1980, Cornell University Craduate 
School of Medical Sciences 

Rottenberg, David A., Associate Professor of 
Neurology. B. A. 1963, University of 
Michigan; M.Sc 1967, University of 
Cambridge (England); M.D. 1969. 
Harvard University 

Rubin. Albert L, Professor of Biochemistry 
m Surgery, M.D. 1950, Cornell 
University 

Ruggiero, David A., Assistant Professor of 

Neurobiology in Neurology, BA. 1972, 
Queens College of the City University 
of New York; M A 1976, M. Phil. 
1977, Ph.D. 1977, Columbia 
l Diversity 

Safai, Bijan, Assistant Professor of Immu- 
nology M.D. 1965, University of 
Teheran Medical School (Iran) 

Santos-Buch, Charles A., Professor of 

Pathology. AH 1953, Harvard Univer- 
sity; M.D. 195" 7 , Cornell University 

Saxena, Brij B., Professor of Endocrinology in 
Obstetrics and Gynecology. Ph.D. 
195-4. University of I.ucknow (India); 
D. Sc. 195" 7 , i (Diversity of Munster 
(Germany ); Ph D 1961, University of 
Wisconsin 



Schlcifcr. Leonard S., Assistant Professor of 
Neurology, A.B 1973, Cornell I Univer- 
sity; M.D. 1977, University of Virginia 
School of Medicine; Ph i)' 1980, 
I nivcrsity of Virginia 

Schubert, Edward T , Assistant Professor of 
Biochemistry in Pediatrics B.S. 1949, 
M S. 1952, Ph.D. 1959, Fordham 
University 

Schwartz. Morton K., Professor of Develop- 
mental Therapy and Clinical Investiga- 
tion. BA. 1948, Lehigh University; 
Ph.D. 1952, Boston University 

Sechzer, Jen A Associate Professor of 

Psychology in Psychiatry. BS 19S6. 
New York University; MA. 1961, Ph D. 
1962, University of Pennsylvania 

Sen, Ganes C, Associate Professor of Molec- 
ular Biology. B.S. 1965, M.S. 1967, 
Calcutta University (India); Ph.D. 
1974, McMaster University (Canada) 

Senterfit, Laurence B., Professor of Microbi- 
ology. B.S. 1949, M.S. 1950, University 
of Florida; Sc.D. 1955, Johns Hopkins 
University 

Shapiro. Joan Rankin, Assistant Professor of 
Cell Biology in Neurology. B.S. I960. 
\\ est minster College; M.S. 1968, New 
York University; MA. 1970, Hofstra 
University ; Ph.D. 1979, Cornell 
University 

Sheffery, Michael, Assistant Professor of 
Molecular Biology. AB. 1975, M.S. 
1977, Ph.D. 1981, Princeton 
University 

Shen. Fung-Win, Associate Professor of 

Immunology, B.S. 1968, Fu-Jcn Cath- 
olic University (Taiwan); M.S. 1971, 
Ph D 1973, I nivcrsity of New Mexico 

Sherline, Peter, Associate Professor of Medi 
cine; A.B. and M.D. 1968, Boston 
University Medical School 

Silagi, Selma, Professor of Genetics in 

Obstetrics and Gynecology A.B. 1936. 
Hunter College; Ph D 1961. Columbia 
University 

Siniscalco, Marccllo, Professor of Cell 

Biology and Genetics. M.D. 1948., 
i diversity of Naples | [tat] | 



103 



Sirlin, Julio L., Professor of Cell Biology and 
Anatomy. D.Sc. 1953, University of 
Buenos Aires (Argentina) 

Sirotnak, Francis M., Professor of Develop- 
mental Therapy and Clinical Investiga- 
tion. B.S. 1950, University of Scranton; 
Ph.D. 1954, University of Maryland 

Siskind, Gregory W., Professor of Medicine. 
BA. 1955, Cornell University; M.D. 
1959, New York University 

Smith, Gerard P., Professor of Psychiatry 
(Behavioral Science). B.S. 1956, St. 
Joseph's College; M.D. I960, Univer- 
sity of Pennsylvania 

Soffer, Richard L., Professor of Biochemistry 
and Medicine. BA. 1954, Amherst 
College; M.D. 1958, Harvard 
University 

Sonenberg, Martin, Professor of Cell Biology 
and Genetics. B.S. 1941, University of 
Pennsylvania; M.D. 1944, Ph.D. 1952, 
New York University 

Staiano-Coico, Lisa, Assistant Professor of 
Cell Biology and Anatomy, B.S. 1976, 
Brooklyn College, Ph.D. 1981, Cornell 
University Graduate School of Medical 
Sciences 

Stavnezer, Edward, Adjunct Assistant 

Professor of Molecular Biology. BA. 
1965, M.S. 1967, University of 
Connecticut; Ph.D. 1971, Johns 
Hopkins University 

Stenzel, Kurt H., Professor of Medicine; 

Professor of Biochemistry in Surgery. 
B.S. 1954, New York University; M.D. 
1958, Cornell University 

Stephenson, John L., Professor of Biomathe- 
matics in Physiology. BA. 1943, 
Harvard University; M.D. 1949, Univer- 
sity of Illinois 

Sternberg, Stephen S., Professor of Develop- 
mental Therapy and Clinical Investiga- 
tion. BA. 1941, Colby College; M.D. 
1944, New York University 

Stokes, Peter E., Associate Professor of Medi- 
cine and Psychiatry. B.S. 1958, Trinity 
College; M.D. 1952, Cornell University 

Stutman, Osias, Professor of Immunology. 

BA. 1950, Colegio Nacional Sarmiento 
(Argentina); M.D. 1957, Buenos Aires 
University Medical School (Argentina) 



Sugg, John V., Emeritus Professor of Microbi- 
ology. A.B. 1926, M.S. 1928, Ph.D. 
1931, Vanderbilt University 

Sussdorf, Dieter H, Associate Professor of 
Microbiology. BA. 1952, University of 
Missouri; Ph.D. 1956, University of 
Chicago 

Szabo, Paul, Assistant Professor of Molecular 
Biology in Medicine; B.S. 1971, Ph.D. 
1974, University of Illinois 

Szeto, Hazel H, Associate Professor of Phar- 
macology. B.S. 1972, Indiana Univer- 
sity; Ph.D., M.D. 1977, Cornell 
University 

Tate, Suresh S., Associate Professor of 

Biochemistry. B.Sc. 1958, M.SC. I960, 
University of Baroda (India); Ph.D. 
1963, University of London (England) 

Teintze, Martin, Assistant Professor of Cell 
Biology and Anatomy, B.S. 1976, Cali- 
fornia Institute of Technology; Ph.D. 
1981, University of California 

Teitelman, Gladys N, Assistant Professor of 
Neurobiology in Neurology. Licen- 
diada in Biology 1962, University of 
Buenos Aires (Argentina); Ph.D. 1971, 
University of Pennsylvania 

Thaler, Howard T., Assistant Professor of 
Developmental Therapy and Clinical 
Investigation. BA. 1967, University of 
California at Los Angeles; Ph.D. 1974, 
State University of New York at Buffalo 

Townes-Anderson, Ellen, Assistant Professor 
of Physiology and Biophysics. BA. 
1968, Connecticut College; MA. 
1971, University of California at 
Berkeley; Ph.D. 1980, Boston Univer- 
sity School of Medicine 

Traktman, Paula, Assistant Professor of Cell 
Biology and Anatomy. A.B. 1974, 
Radcliffe College, Harvard University; 
Ph.D. 1981, Massachusetts Institute of 
Technology 

Udenfriend, Sidney, Adjunct Professor of 
Biochemistry. B.S. 1939, City College 
of New York; M.S. 1942, Ph.D. 1948, 
New York University 

Urban, Bernd W., Assistant Professor of Phys- 
iology and Biophysics. Diplom der 
Physik (Master) 1974, University of 
Karlsruhe (West Germany); Ph.D. 
1978, University of Cambridge 
(England) 



104 



Wall, Doris A , Assistant Professor of Cell 
Biology and Anatomy. B.A. l l )~0. 
University of New Hampshire Ph. I) 
1975, Cornell University 

Watanabe, Kyoichi A., Professor of Develop- 
mental Therapy and Clinical Investiga- 
tion. Ph.D. 1963. Hokkaido University 
(Japan) 

Weinstein, Alan M., Assistant Professor of 
Physiology and Biophysics A.B. 1971, 
Princeton University; M.D. 1975, 
Harvard University 

W eksler, Babette B., Professor of Medicine 
BA. 1958, Swarthmore College; M.D. 
1963, Columbia University 

Weksler, Marc E., Ining Sherwood Wright 
Professor of Geriatrics; Professor of 
Medicine. B.A. 1958. Sw arthmore 
College; M.D 1962. Columbia 
University 

Wellner, Daniel, Associate Professor of 
Biochemistry. A.B. 1956, Harvard 
University; Ph.D. 1961, Tufts 
University 

Windhager, Erich E., Maxwell M. Upson 
Professor of Physiology and 
Biophysics. M.D. 1954, University of 
Vienna (Austria) 



\\ ong, George V . Assistant Professor of 

Developmental Therapy and Clinical 
Investigation, BA. 1973, Rice Univer- 
sity; M A 1975, Ph.D. 1978, Harvard 
I nivcrsity 

Woods, Kenneth R., Associate Professor of 
Biochemistry. BA. 1948, Arizona State 
University; Ph.D. 1955, University of 
Minnesota 

Vang, Soo Young, Avsistant Professor of 
Immunology. M.S. 1972, Minnesota 
State University; Ph.D. 1981, New 
York University 

Young, Robert C, Assistant Professor of 

Psychiatry in Neurobiology. BA. 1969, 
Williams College; M.D. 1974, Cornell 
University 

Zakim, David, Vincent Astor Distinguished 
Professor of Medicine. BA. 1956, 
Cornell University; M.D. 1961, State 
University of New York Downstate 
Medical Center 

Zeitz, Louis, Associate Professor of Develop- 
mental Therapy and Clinical Investiga- 
tion. A.B. 1948, University of Cali- 
fornia; Ph.D. 1962, Stanford University 



105 



Degree Recipients 1985-86 

Doctors of Philosophy 



Belkowski, Linda S., BA. 1979, Rutgers 
University. Molecular Biology, 
Professor Ganes Sen. Thesis: 
"Interferon-Mediated Inhibition of 
Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Replication 
in Cells with Differential Interferon 
Sensitivities" 

Bergold, Peter J., B.S. 1977, Trinity College. 
Molecular Biology, Professor Peter 
Besmer. Thesis: "Feline aW-Containing 
Retroviruus and their Role in 
Oncogenesis" 

Brodeur, David, B.S. 1979, College of 

William and Mary. Molecular Biology, 
Professor Edward Stavnezer. Thesis: 
"Identification and Analysis of Poly- 
proteins Containing A Domain 
Encoded by the Oncogene v-ski of the 
SK Viruses" 

Chan, Marion Man-Ying, B.S. 1975, M.S. 

1978, University of Maryland. Immu- 
nology, Professor Osias Stutman. 
Thesis: "Functional and Biochemical 
Characterization of Two Murine 
Lymphocyte Antigens, Ly-10 and Ly- 
22, Defined by Monoclonal 
Antibodies" 

Chaum, Edward, BA. 1 979, Johns Hopkins 
University. Cell Biology and Genetics, 
Professor Raju Chaganti. Thesis: 
Cytogenetic and Molecular Studies of 
the Role of Oncogenes in Transforma- 
tion in Retinoblastoma" 

Chen, Yao-Tseng, B.Med. 1981, College of 
Medicine, National Taiwan University. 
Immunobiology, Professor Lloyd J. 
Old. Thesis: "Thymus-Leukemia (TL) 
Antigens of the Mouse: Analysis of TL 
Genes, TLmRNA, and TLcDNA" 

Colmenares, Clemencia, B.S. 1976, Yale 
University. Immunology, Professor 
Carlos Lopez. Thesis: "Natural Cell- 
Meditated Cyto toxicity Against 
Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Infected 
Cells and Its Role in Murine Natural 
Resistance to HSV-1" 



Davatelis, George N., BA 1977, Montclair 
State College, M.S. 1979, University of 
Hawaii. Cell Biology and Genetics, 
Professor Marcello Siniscalco. Thesis: 
"The Isolation and Characterization of 
Cloned Molecular Probes for Mapping 
the Human X-Chromosome" 

DiPaola, Eugene A, B.S. 1974, Manhattan 
College. Cell Biology and Genetics, 
Professor Richard Sterner. Thesis: 
"Characterization and Biological 
Significance of Deacetylases" 

Harris, Paul E., AB. 1978, University of Cali- 
fornia. Cell Biology and Genetics, 
Professor Malcolm A. S. Moore. Thesis: 
"Biological and Biochemical Charac- 
terization of Cytokine-Induced Differ- 
entiation of the Human Myelogenous 
Leukemia Cell Lines HL-60 and U937" 

Hodes, Marquis Z., A.B. 1973, Indiana 

University at Bloomington; M.S. 1976, 
Indiana University at Indianapolis. 
Immunology, Professor Richard J. 
O'Reilly. Thesis: "Bone Marrow Trans- 
plantation Using Lectin Fractionated 
Marrow in Mouse and Man" 

Jeong, Gajin, B.S. 1976, M.S. 1978, Seoul 

National University. Cell Biology and 
Genetics, Professor Peter Ralph. 
Thesis: "Human B Lymphocyte- 
inducing Factor: Production, Charac- 
terization, and Induction of 
Immunoglobulin-secreting Cells in 
Stimulated B Lymphocytes" 

Klein, Deborah, BA. 1973, New York 
University; M.S. 1978, Fordham 
University. Cell Biology and Genetics, 
Professor Janet Stavnezer. Thesis: 
"Somatic Mutation Occurs During a 
Proscribed Period of B Cell Develop- 
ment Before Isotype Switch in the 
1.29 Lymphoma" 

Lee, William T. L, BA. 1978, Johns Hopkins 
University. Cell Biology and Genetics, 
Professor Nurul H. Sarkar. Thesis: 
"Characterization of a Variant Murine 
Mammary Tumor Virus Provirus in a 
DBA/2 Mouse T-Cell Leukemia" 



106 



Montgomery, Kate L. B.A. 19^8, Vassar 

College. Molecular Biology, Professor 
Peter W. Melera. Thesis: Studies on 
Gene Amplification in Human 
Neuroblastoma" 

Mynarcik. Dennis C, B.& 1978, University of 
Texxs at San Antonio. Biochemistry, 
Professor Gordon F. Fairclough, Jr. 
Thesis: "Pulmonary Surfactant Acidic 
Phospholipid Biosynthesis: A Role for 
the lamellar Body" 

Rico-Hesse. Rebeca, B.S. 1978, University of 
Nebraska. M.P H 1980, University of 
Minnesota. Microbiology, Professor 
Robert W. Dickerman. Thesis: "Epide- 
miology and Characterization of the 
the I D Subtype of VEE Virus in 
Columbia" 

Riley, Richard J., B.S. 1972, Manhattan 

College; M.S. 1976, New York Univer- 
sity. Developmental Therapy and Clin- 
ical Investigation, Professor John S. 
Laughlin. Thesis: "Aspects of Electron 
Dosimetry" 

Rubino, Stephen D , B.S. 1980, Muhlenberg 
College. Microbiology, Professor 
Michael E. Wiebe. Thesis: "The Nature 
of the Interactions Between Sendai 
Virus and Human Leukocytes Which 
Leads to Interferon Induction" 

Wallace. David, B.S. 1966, City University of 
New York. Microbiology, Professor 
Gregory W. Siskind. Thesis: "Function 
of Mouse Immunoglobulin D" 

Masters of Science 

Gudewill, Ellen V, B.S. 1979, State University 
of New York at Stony Brook. 
Pathology, Professor Carl Becker. 
Thesis: "Plasmin-Derived C3a 
Anaphytatoxin" 

Mirenda, Carol A, BA. 1979, Rutgers Univer- 
sity. Molecular Biology and Virology, 
Professor Alien Oliff. Thesis: "A Study 
of the Murine Retroviral Genomic 
Domains Required for the Induction 
of Leukemia" 

Ruether, James E., BA. 1981, University of 
Colorado. Molecular Biology and 
Virology, Professor Selina Chen-Kiang. 
Thesis: "Expression of Mouse Immu- 
noglobulin Ml Gene in an Adenovirus 
Vector" 



Students 1986-87 

Candidates for the Degree of 
Doctor of Philosophy 

Abate. Corinne, BA. 1983, Fordham Univer- 
sity. Major: Neurobiology and 
Behavior Brooklyn, New York 

Ark, Belinda C, A.B. 1984, Cornell Univer- 
sity. Major: Cell Biology and Genetics. 
San Francisco, California 

Arnold, James B., BA. 1982, Columbia 
College. Major: Neurobiology and 
Behavior. New York, New York 

^Askari, Frederick K., BA. 1981, Cornell 
University, Major: Pharmacology. 
Toledo, Ohio 

Bamhart, Kerry M., B.S. 1983, M.S. 1985, 
University of Arizona. Major: Molec- 
ular Biology. Tucson, Arizona 

1 'Batter, David K., B.S. 1979, University of 
Connecticut. Major: Cell Biology and 
Genetics. New Haven, Connecticut 

Bauchwitz, Robert P., BA. 1982, Harvard 
University. Major: Molecular Biology. 
Wilmington, Delaware 

Bayer, Virginia E., BA/B.S. 1981, University 
of California. Major: Neurobiology and 
Behavior. Newport Beach, California 

Berger, Scott B., BA 1983, Emory Univer 
sity. Major. Neurobiology and 
Behavior. Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 

"Blank, Seymour G., B E E. 1965, City 

University of New York: M.E.E. 1968. 
New York University. Major: Physi- 
ology and Biophysics. Brooklyn, New 
York 

Blumenthal, Jeffrey A., BA. 1985, Vassar 
College. Major: Immunology. Glen- 
wood, Illinois 

"Brennan, Lynn A, BA. 1974, Rutgers 

University. Major: Molecular Biology. 
New York, New York 

Brock, Alice M., A.B. 1978, Smith College; 
M.S.H.S. 1980, Northeastern Univer 
sity. Major: Cell Biology and Genetics, 
Scarsdale, New York 

1 'in absentia 
J> leave of absence 
candidate for degree onty 



107 



Brooks, David G., BA. 1982, University of 
Colorado; M.S. 1984, Michigan State 
University. Major: Cell Biology and 
Genetics. Rochester, Michigan 

Buck, Charles R., B.S. 1983, College of Idaho. 
Major: Cell Biology and Genetics. 
Caldwell, Idaho 

2) Choy, Janet Wing, A.B. 1977, Smith 
College. Major: Cell Biology and 
Genetics. Wayne, New Jersey 

Clurman, Bruce E., BA. 1981, University of 
Virginia. Major: Molecular Biology. 
Cherry Hill, New Jersey 

Cuerdon, Elizabeth F., B.S. 1985, Siena 

College. Major: Microbiology, Immu 
nology, and Pathology. Loudonville, 
New York 

Dicker, Adam P., BA 1984, Columbia 

University. Major: Cell Biology and 
Genetics. Great Neck, New York 

DiSanto, James P., BA. 1983, Johns Hopkins 
University. Major: Development 
Therapy and Clinical Investigation. 
Cherry Hill, New Jersey 

Donnelly, Robert E., B.S. 1985, University of 
California. Major: Biochemistry. 
Cupertino, California 

Doucette, Lynn Anne, B.Sc. 1981, McMaster 
University (Canada). Major. Cell 
Biology and Genetics. Toronto, 
Canada 

Drozdoff, Vladimir V., BA. 1979, Bowdoin 
College. Major: Developmental 
Therapy and Clinical Investigation. 
Cooper, Maine 

Einheber, Steven, B.S. 1981, George Wash- 
ington University. Major: Cell Biology 
and Genetics. Washington, D.C. 

Ennulat, Cynthia L., BA. 1980, State Univer- 
sity of New York, Oswego; M.S. 1985, 
Syracuse University. Major: Cell 
Biology and Genetics. Brewerton, 
New York 

Escandon, Enrique M., B.S. 1983, M.S. 1985, 
Universidad Nacional Autonoma de 
Mexico. Major-. Cell Biology and 
Genetics. Mexico City, Mexico 

Evans, Elizabeth V, BA 1980, Bennington 
College. Major: Cell Biology and 
Genetics. La Jolla, California 



Febbraio, Maria, B.S. 1982, Fordham Univer- 
sity. Major: Microbiology, Immu- 
nology, and Pathology. Staten Island, 
New York 

Fernandez-Almonacid, Rafael, B.Sc. 1980, 
M.Sc. 1985, Universidad Austral De 
Chile. Major: Molecular Biology. 
Valdivia, Chile 

Firpo, Meri T., BA 1984, Carroll College. 
Major: Cell Biology and Genetics. 
Helena, Montana 

Fotheringham, Robert Scott, B.Sc. 1985, 

University of Guelph. Major: Molecular 
Biology. Ontario, Canada 

Foxman, Brett, BA. 1982, Boston University; 
M.D. 1982, Boston University School 
of Medicine. Major: Neurobiology and 
Behavior. Perm Valley, Pennsylvania 

Gamble, David A., D.V.M. 1978, Washington 
State University. Major: Microbiology, 
Immunology, and Pathology. Ithaca, 
New York 

}) Green, William Nathan, B.Sc. 1978, Univer- 
sity of Toronto. Major: Physiology and 
Biophysics. Buffalo, New York 

Greenlee, Paul G, B.S. 1977, Oklahoma State 
University; D.V.M. 1980, Oklahoma 
State University; M.S. 1982, Oklahoma 
State University. Major: Microbiology, 
Immunology, and Pathology. New 
York, New York 

Groden, Joanna L, BA 1978, Middlebury 
College. Major: Cell Biology and 
Genetics. Cambridge, Massachusetts 

Gulati, Poonam, BA. 1982, Cornell Univer- 
sity. Major: Microbiology, Immu- 
nology, and Pathology. Collins, New 
York 

Gummere, Gregory R, BA. 1979, M.S. 1981, 
University of Cincinnati. Major: Cell 
Biology and Genetics. Cincinnati, 
Ohio 

Gundersen, Doris I., BA. 1977, Clark Univer- 
sity. Major: Cell Biology and Genetics. 
West Babylon, New York 

Hachfeld, Ughetta del Balzo, BA 1981, 

Barnard College. Major: Pharmacology. 
Rome, Italy 

Hahn, Mounou, B.S. 1985, University of 

Wisconsin. Major: Molecular Biology. 
Seoul, Korea 



108 



Hahn. Soonjung Lucia, B.S. 1983, Seoul 

National University; M.S. 1985, Univer- 
sity of Wisconsin. Major: Molecular 
Biology. Seoul, Korea 

Hariri, Robert, B.A. 1980, Columbian 

College. Major: Microbiology, Immu- 
nology, and Pathology. Forest Hills, 
New York 

Harris. Andrea. B.A. 1979, Boston University 
Major: Microbiology, Immunology, and 
Pathology. Hampton Bays, New York 

Hearn, Timothy J., B.S. 1983, Penn State 
University. Major: Neurobiology and 
Behavior. Camp Hill, Pennsylvania 

Heinrich, N.Julia, BA. 1977, Brown Univer- 
sity Major: Molecular Biology. New 
York, New York 

Hodgins, Gregory W. L., B.Sc. 1985, Univer- 
sity of Toronto. Major: Immunology. 
Ontario, Canada 

Hong, Guangyuan, B.S. 1982, M.S. 1985, 
Peking University. Major: Molecular 
Biology. Peking, People's Republic of 
China 

Hume, Clifford R., BA. 1983, Carleton 

College. Major: Immunology. Incline 
Village, Nevada 

Hwang, Ony ou, AB. 1982. Smith College. 
Major: Neurobiology and Behavior. 
Seoul, Korea 

Jenkins, Deborah L., BA. 1983, Williams 
College. Major. Biochemistry. 
Amherst, Massachusetts 

Kanter, Madge R.. BA. 1982, University of 
California at Santa Cruz. Major: Molec- 
ular Biology. Palo Alto, California 

Kelly, Catherine D., BA 1981, State Univer- 
sity of New York at Purchase. Major: 
Microbiology . Immunology , and 
Pathology Rockvillc Centre, New 
York 

Kenny, Mark K., BA. 1983. Wesleyan Univer- 
sity. Major: Molecular Biology . Chap 
paqua. New York 

Kim, Chul Geun, B.S. 1981, Han Yang 

University; M.S. 1983. Seoul National 
University. Major. Molecular Biology 
Yesan, Korea 



Knudsen, Beatrice S . M S 1982. I nivcrsity 
of Vienna. Major: Cell Biology and 
Genetics. Vienna. Austria 

korn.ick, David R . B.S 1983. Northern 1 1 1 i - 
nois University. Major. Neurobiology 
and Behavior. Lombard, Illinois 

Kunzi, Myriam S., BA. 1984, Wellesle) 
College. Major: Cell Biology and 
Genetics. Upper Malboro, Mary land 

I-adcr. Eric Scott, B.S. 1981, Brooklyn 
College. Major: Cell Biology and 
Genetics. Brooklyn, New York 

I ce. Jin Moo, B.A. 1985. Yale University. Fort 
Washington, Maryland 

Lee, Myung Soo, M.D. 1979, M.M.S. 1980 
Seoul National L'niversity (Korea). 
Major: Immunology . Dongdaemum-ku, 
Seoul, Korea 

Leonard, Christopher, J., B.S. 1985, Cornell 
University. Major: Microbiology, 
Immunology, and Pathology. 
Rochester, New York 

Le Strange, Renee C, BA 1978, University of 
North Carolina. Major: Immunology. 
Long Branch, New Jersey 

2) Levine, Sulamita, M.D. 1975, M.S. 1980, 
University of Zulia Medical School 
(Venezuela). Major: Neurobiology and 
Behavior. Maracaibo, Venezuela 

Li, I.uyuan, Graduate Certificate 1982, 

Sichuan University. Major: Biochem- 
istry Zunyi City. People's Republic of 
China 

Lisanti, Michael. P.. BA. 1985, New York 
University. Major: Cell Biology and 
Genetics. Rockaway Beach. New York 

Utherland, Sally A.. B.S. 1981. University of 
Florida; M.S. 1983 University of 
Florida. Major: Microbiology, Immu- 
nology and Pathology. Satellite Beach, 
Florida 

Liu, Su. M I) 1982, Shanghai First Medical 
College Major: Cell Biology and 
Genetics. Hunan. China 

I.u, Bai, B.S. 1982, East China Normal Univer- 
sity; M.Sc. 1985, Shanghai First 
Medical College Major: Neurobiology 
and Behavior Shanghai. People's 
Republic of China 



109 



'Lufkin, Thomas C, A.B. 1981, University of 
California, Berkeley. Major: Molecular 
Biology. Birmingham, Michigan 

Maddock, Anne E., BA. 1985, Yale Univer- 
sity. Major: Neurobiology and 
Behavior. Fairfield, Connecticut 

Maher, Kevin J., B.S. 1984, Manhattan 

College. Major: Microbiology, Immu- 
nology, and Pathology. Yonkers, New 
York 

Maki, Robert G., BA 1985, Northwestern 
University. Major: Cell Biology and 
Genetics. Omaha, Nebraska 

Mandell, James W., AB. 1984, Cornell 

University. Major: Neurobiology and 
Behavior. Charlottesville, Virginia 

Marino, Michael W., BA. 1983, Skidmore 
College; M.S. 1985, University of 
Texas. Major: Cell Biology and 
Genetics. Racine, Wisconsin 

Martinez, Humberto Jose, M.D. 1975, 
University of Zulia Medical School 
(Venezuela). Major: Neurobiology and 
Behavior. Maracaibo, Venezuela 

1 >Maurer, David H., AB. 1977, Cornell 
University. Major: Immunology. 
Newburgh, New York 

McNerney Mary Ellen, B.S. 1977, M.S. 1983, 
St. John's University. Major: Pharma- 
cology. Huntington, New York 

Meyers, Lillian R S., AB. 1984, Brown 

University. Major: Biology. Chicago, 
Illinois 

Michitsch, Richard W., BA 1975, M.S. 1978, 
New York University. Major: Molecular 
Biology. Brooklyn, New York 

Mok, Minsen, BA. 1982, Johns Hopkins 
University. Major: Cell Biology and 
Genetics. Convent Station, New Jersey 

Moncrieff, Patrice M., B.S. 1984, Boston 
College. Major: Cell Biology and 
Genetics. Park Ridge, New Jersey 

Nicholson, Andrew C, B.S. 1973, D.V.M. 
1976, Michigan State University. 
Major: Microbiology, Immunology, and 
Pathology. Bangor, Maine 

Nocka, Karl H., BA 1983, Bowdoin College. 
Major-. Molecular Biology. Ridgewood, 
New Jersey 



Nussenzveig, Daniel R, M.D. 1980, Univer- 
sity of Sao Paulo. Major: Physiology 
and Biophysics. Sao Paulo, Brazil 

Parada, Camilo A., B.S. 1978, Licence Biology 
(Master of Science) 1981, Catholic 
University of Valparaiso (Chile). 
Major: Molecular Biology. White 
Plains, New York 

Patil, Nila J., BA. 1980, University of Buffalo. 
Major: Cell Biology and Genetics. 
Buffalo, New York 

Pearse, Roger N., BA. 1977, Dartmouth 

College. Major: Microbiology, Immu- 
nology, and Pathology. Newport, 
Rhode Island 

Pincus, David W., B.S. 1985, Yale University. 
Hampden, Massachusetts 

Qiu, Feihua, M.D. 1979, Beijing Medical 
College. Major: Molecular Biology. 
Shanghai, People's Republic of China 

Qiu, Wei-Qiao, M.D. 1982, Peking Medical 
College. Major: Immunology. Peking, 
People's Republic of China 

Ramakrishna, Naren R, BA. 1985, Johns 
Hopkins University. Charleston, West 
Virginia 

Robertson, Donna A., B.S. 1979, Syracuse 
University. Major: Pharmacology. 
White Plains, New York 

2 'Rosenberg, Charles D., AB. 1978, Wash- 
ington University; M.S. 1979, State 
University of New York at Buffalo. 
Major: Cell Biology and Genetics. 
Merrick, New York 

Rosenberg, Elizabeth A., BA. 1981, Wesleyan 
University. Major: Biochemistry. New 
York, New York 

Rubino, Heidi M., B.S. 1980, Muhlenberg 
College. Major-. Biochemistry. New 
York, New York 

Russell, David S., BA. 1982, Oberlin College. 
Major: Molecular Biology. Chagrin 
Falls, Ohio 

Sehgal, Amita, B.Sc. 1981, Delhi University 
(India); M.Sc. 1983, Jawaharial Nehru 
University School of Life Sciences 
(India); Major: Cell Biology and 
Genetics. New Delhi, India 



110 



Shaffer, Rose Mary, B.S. 1980, Loyola 

College. Major: Microbiology, Immu- 
nology, and Pathology. Baltimore, 
Maryland 

Shapiro, Geoffrey L, BA 1981, Columbia 
University. Major: Molecular Biology. 
Schenectady, New York 

Signorelli, Kathy L, BA. 1982, Wellesley 
College. Major: Molecular Biology. 
Strongsville, Ohio 

Solomon, David H., A.B. 1982, Oberlin 
College. Major: Molecular Biology. 
Montreal, Canada 

2) Sordillo, Emilia M., A.B. 1976, Harvard 

University; M.D. 1980, Cornell Univer- 
sity. Major: Immunology. New York, 
New York 

St. Angelo, Carol E., B.S. 1981, Mississippi 
University for Women. Major: Molec- 
ular Biology. Arlington, Texas 

Stein, Rebecca L, B.S. 1985, University of 
Michigan. Major: Cell Biology and 
Genetics. Grand Rapids, Michigan 

Steiner, Lisa E., B.S. 1985, Cornell University. 
Major: Developmental Therapy and 
Clinical Investigation. Batavia, New 
York 

Stinavage, Paul Stanley, A AS. 1977, State 

University of New York at Morrisville; 
B.S. 1 98 1 , Maryw(xxl College. Major: 
Microbiology, Immunology, and 
Pathology. Susquehanna, Pennsylvania 

Straub, Richard E., BA. 1982, New College. 
Major: Cell Biology and Genetics. New 
York, New York 

Stricter, Jon W., AB. 1985, Princeton Univer- 
sity. Major: Physiology and Biophysics. 
Br(K)klyn, New York 

Tantravahi, JogiRaju V., BA. 1984, Columbia 
University. Major: Cell Biology and 
Genetics. Waltham, Massachusetts 

2 'Taylor, Colleen, B.S. 1980, Siena College. 
Major: Microhiok)gy. Immunology, and 
Pathology. Newark, New Jersey 

Teumer, Jeffrey K., BA. 1979, Colgate 

University Major: Molecular Biology 
Sheboygan, Wisconsin 

Thormodsson. Finnbogi R., B.Sc. 1980, 

University of Iceland. Major: Neurobi 
ology and Behavior Reykjavik, Iceland 



Till, Martha L, B.S. 1975, Colorado State 
University. Major: Microbiology, 
Immunology, and Pathology. Chicago, 
Illinois 

Tsukuda, Toyoko, A A. 1975, Laney College; 
BA. 1 977, University of California. 
Major: Molecular Biology. Osaka, Japan 

Underwood, Mark, BA. 1981, University of 
Vermont. Major: Neurobiology and 
Behavior. St. Albans, Vermont 

J) Vigar, Diane C, B.S. 1976, M.S. 1981, 

Wagner College. Major: Microbiology, 
Immunology, and Pathology. Staten 
Island, New York 

von Kreuter, Betsy F., B.S. 1982, University of 
Vermont. Major: Microbiology, Immu- 
nology, and Pathology. Darien, 
Connecticut 

Walewski, Jose L, B.S. 1980, Pennsylvania 
State University; MA. 1984, Boston 
University. Major: Pharmacology. 
Newton, Massachusetts 

Weinstein, Catherine Ippolito, B.S. 1982, 

State University of New York at Stony 
Brook. Major: Biochemistry. East 
Meadow, New York 

"Wcisman, Steven M., B.S., BA. 1981, Fair 
leigh Dickinson University. Major: 
Pharmacology. Kansas City, Missouri 

Wong, Gwendolyn T, B.S. 1984, McMaster 
University ( Canada ). Major: Cell 
Biology and Genetics. Hamilton, 
Ontario, Canada 

Wu, Kai Yuan, BA. 1983, New York Univer- 
sity. Major: Molecular Biology. 
Shanghai, People's Republic of China 

Yan, Hai, B.S. 1982, Nanjing University. 
Major: Biochemistry. Wuxi City, 
People's Republic of China 

Yan, Ning, Diploma 1980, Nanjing Univer- 
sity. Major: Biochemistry. Nanjing, 
People 's Republic of China 

Yang. Jung-Mou, M B. 1979, National 

Defense- Medical ( e nter Major: Physi- 
ology and Biophysics Taipei, Taiwan, 
Republic of China 

Young, Benjamin. BA. 1983, University of 
California. Major: Molecular Biology. 
San Diego, California 



I 1 I 



Entering Students 

Ahn, Jong C, B.S. 1979, Seoul National 

University; M.S. 1981, Korea Advanced 
Institute of Science and Technology. 
Major: Cell Biology and Genetics. 

Bannerji, Rajat, BA. 1986, Cornell University. 
Major: Cell Biology and Genetics. 
Durgapur, India 

Becker, Murray, B.A. 1985, University of 
Chicago 

Bisaha, Joseph G, BA. 1986, Rutgers Univer- 
sity. Major: Cell Biology and Genetics. 
Perth Amboy, New Jersey 

Brayton, Cory Flagg, BA. 1981, Williams 

College; D.V.M. 1985, New York State 
College of Veterinary Medicine. Major: 
Microbiology, Immunology, and 
Pathology. New York, New York 

Crombie, Andrea R., BA. 1981, Goucher 

College. Major: Molecular Biology. San 
Diego, California 

DeCarlo, MicheleJ., BA. 1986, Lafayette 
College. Major: Molecular Biology. 
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 

Donahue, Jean Marie, B.S. 1981, Manhattan 
College; M.S. 1983, Carnegie-Mellon 
University. Major: Developmental 
Therapy and Clinical Investigation. 
Glen Cove, New York 

Fang, Hung, B.S. 1985, Shanghai Medical 
University. Major: Pharmacology. 
Shanghai, China 

Geisberg, Mark S., B.S. 1985, Yale University. 
Major: Immunology. Leningrad, USSR 

Gilbert, Gretchen E., BA 1982, Swarthmore 
College. Major: Molecular Biology. 
Syracuse, New York 

Greenberg, Adam, A.B. 1981, Bard College. 
Major: Cell Biology and Genetics. New 
Rochelle, New York 

Huang, Chin-shiou, B.S. 1982, Kaohsiung 
Medical College; M.S. 1984, National 
Tsing Hua University. Hsinchu, Taiwan 

Johnson, Ellen L, BA. 1983, Oberlin 

College. Major: Molecular Biology. 
Tarpon Springs, Florida 

Kane, Eileen M., BA. 1985, Hunter College. 
Major: Molecular Biology. New York, 
New York 



Li, Mingxia, B. S. 1982, Beijing Second 

Medical College; M.S. 1985, Chinese 
Academy of Medical Sciences. Major: 
Pharmacology. Beijing, China 

Mahajan, Rohit, BA. 1984, Swarthmore 
College. Major-. Cell Biology and 
Genetics. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia 

McDonald, William F., BA. 1985, University 
of Florida. Major: Microbiology, Immu- 
nology and Pathology. Jacksonville, 
Florida 

Moran, Lorraine M., A.B. 1982, Mount 

Holyoke College; M.S. 1984, St. John's 
University. Major: Molecular Biology. 
New York, New York 

Morham, Scott G., B.S. 1981, Hobart College; 
M.S. 1985, Texas A&M University. 
Major: Molecular Biology. Tarrytown, 
New York 

Muench, Marcus O., A.S. 1983, College of 
Marin; B.S. 1986, University of Cali- 
fornia. Major: Cell Biology and 
Genetics. San Francisco, California 

Murakami, Monica S., B.S. 1986, University of 
Maryland. Major: Cell Biology and 
Genetics. Yokohama, Japan 

Norris, Carol Ann, B.S., BA. 1981, Cabrini 
College; M.S. 1983, Villanova Univer- 
sity. Major: Cell Biology and Genetics. 
Havertown, Pennsylvania 

OMalley, Edward K, B.S. 1985, SUNY Stony 
Brook. Major: Neurobiology and 
Behavior. New York, New York 

Rempel, Rachel E., B.Sc. 1986, University of 
Toronto. Major: Cell Biology and 
Genetics. Oxford, England 

Romanski, Lizabeth M., BA. 1985, Rutgers 
University. Major: Neurobiology and 
Behavior. Fort Worth, Texas 

Sawyer, Douglas B., B.S. 1984, Cornell 
University. Major: Physiology and 
Biophysics. Beverly, Massachusetts 

Sgouros, George, B.S. 1984, Columbia 
University. Major: Physiology and 
Biophysics. Munich, Germany 

Shuh, Maureen, A.B. 1986, University of Cali- 
fornia. Major: Immunology. Taipei, 
Taiwan 



112 



Stole. Einar, B.S. 1986, University of Wash- 
ington. Major: Biochemistry. Seattle. 
Washington 

Studwell, Patricia S , B.S. 1984, State Univer- 
sity of New York. Major: Microbiology, 
Immunology, and Pathology. Green- 
wich, Connecticut 

Stukenbcrg, Peter Todd, B.S. 1986. Colgate 
University. Major: Molecular Biology. 
Syracuse, New York 

Sullenger, Bruce A., B.S. 1986, Indiana 

I niversity. Major: Molecular Biology. 
Centerville, Ohio 

Szabo, Aniko, M.D. 1982, Szeged University 
Medical School. Major: Neurobiology 
and Behavior. Szeged, Hungary 

Taddie, John A., B.S. 1986, Penn State 

University. Major: Molecular Biology 
Indiana, Pennsylvania 

Tan, Jimmy C, B.S. 1985, Ateneo de Manila 
University. Major: Molecular Biology. 
Manila, Philippines 



Tjoa. Tjauw M , B.S 1986. University of Okla- 
homa Major Biochemistry. Bandung, 
Indonesia 

long, Yat Ching, B.S. 1982, National Taiwan 
University. Major: Developmental 
Therapy and Clinical Investigation. 
Hong Kong 

Winick, Jeffrey D., B.S. 1986. Worcester 

Polytechnic Institute. Major: Microbi- 
ology, Immunology', and Pathology. 
Boston, Massachusetts 

Yokoyama, Midori, BA. 1983, Pacific Luth- 
eran University; M.S. 1985, Stanford 
University. Major: Neurobiology and 
Behavior. Tokyo, Japan 

Zavitz, Kenton H., B.Sc. 1986, University of 
Toronto. Major: Molecular Biology. 
Niagara Falls, Canada 

Zebala, John A., B.S. 1986, University of 
Southern California. 



1H 



Index 



115 



Index 



Administration, Register, 95 
Admission, 65 
Applications, 65 
Application Fee, 65 
Awards and Prizes, 71 

Biochemistry, Field of, 7, 75 

Biophysics, see Deve lopmental Therapy and 

Clinical Investigation 

see Physiology and Biophysics 

Cell Biology and Genetics, Field and Unit of, 

12,38. 76,80 
Committees. 95 

Committee on Student Prizes. 96 
Courses, see under individual Fields, I nits, 

and Programs 
Credentials Review Committee. 96 
Curriculum Committee. 96 

Degree Recipients. Register. 106 
Degree Requirements. 66 

Developmental ITierapy and Clinical Investigation 
Unit of, 42, 84 

Examinations. 69 
Executive Committee, 2. 95 

Faculty . Register. 96 

Faculty Advisory Committee, 3, 95 

Faculty and Research Activities, 5 

Medical College Division, 7 

Sloan-Kcttering Division, 38 

lntcrdivisional Programs, 49 
Fellowships and Scholarships, 7 1 
Fields, Units, and Programs 

Biochemistry. 7, 75 

Cell Biology and Genetics, 12, 38, 76. 80 
Developmental Therapy and Clinical 

Investigation, 42, 84 
Immunology. 44, 86 
Microbiology, Immunology, 

and Pathology, 17, 78 
Molecular Biology, 49. 88 
Neurobiology and Behavior. 23. 80 
Pharmacology . 30. 55, 89 
Physiology and Biophysics, 30, 80 
Financial Assistance, 70 
Foreign language Requirements. 69 
iils<> sec under individual Fields, 
I riits. and Programs 

Genetics, 

see Cell Biology and Genetics 

see Molecular Biology 
Grades, 67 



I [ealth Services, 72 

Housing see Residence Halls 

Immunology, Unit of, 44, 86 

s«?also Microbiology, Immunology, 
and Patholog) 
In Absentia. 68, 70 

i eave ol Absence, (>n. 70 
M.D.-Ph.D. Programs, 3, 73 
M.D.-Ph.D Program Committee, 96 
Medical Scientist Training Programs, 

see M.D.-Ph.D. Programs 
Microbiology. Immunology, and Pathology, 

Field of, 17, 78 
Molecular Biology . lntcrdivisional Program in. 

49,88 

Neurobiology and Behavior, Field of, 23, HO 

Part-time Graduate Study, 67 
Ph.D.-M.D. Program. -4. 73 
Pharmacology, Field of, 30 

lntcrdivisional Program in, 55, 89 
Physiology and Biophysics, Field of, 30, 80 
Prizes, see Awards and Prizes 
Provisional Candidacy, 66 

Register. 93 
Registration. 67 

Research Activites. see under individual 

Fields. I 'nits, and Programs 
Residence and Residence Units, 67 

Transfer of, 68 
Residence Halls, 72 

Requirements and Course Offerings. 63 
( ■eneral. 65 

Medical College Division, -: > 
Sloan-Kcttering Division. 83 
lntcrdivisional Programs. 88 

Scholarships, 71 
Special Committee. 66 
Special Students, 66 
Students, Register, 107 

Summer Research. 68 

Thesis, 69 

I uit ion and Fees, 69 

\ Irolog) 

see Microbiology, Immunolog) 

and Pathology 
see Molecular Biology 



117